Skip to main content


Callisthenes (kəlĬs´thənēz), c.360–c.327 BC, Greek historian of Olynthus; nephew of Aristotle. He accompanied Alexander the Great into Asia as the historian of the expedition. At first he compared Alexander to a god, but later he became one of the principal critics of the Eastern manners of the court. He was suspected of complicity in a conspiracy against Alexander and put to death; this turned the Peripatetics, Aristotle's followers, against Alexander. Callisthenes' histories of contemporary affairs in Greece are lost. In medieval times he was believed to be the author of the standard biography of Alexander, a work that actually was written much later than Callisthenes' lifetime.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Callisthenes." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . 22 Feb. 2018 <>.

"Callisthenes." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . (February 22, 2018).

"Callisthenes." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved February 22, 2018 from

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

The Chicago Manual of Style

American Psychological Association

  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.