Boniface IX, c.1345–1404, pope (1389–1404), a Neapolitan named Pietro Tomacelli; successor of Urban VI. The Avignon antipopes Clement VII and Benedict XIII were his contemporaries during the Great Schism. He succeeded in imposing his rule on the Papal States. He fortified Rome and brought Naples under the Roman obedience. His attempt to replenish the papal treasury proved unpopular, and he was accused of nepotism and simony. He was succeeded by Innocent VII.