Skip to main content

Billaud-Varenne, Jean Nicolas

Jean Nicolas Billaud-Varenne (zhäk nēkōlä´ bēyō´-värĕn´), 1756–1819, French revolutionary. A violent antimonarchist in the Convention, the revolutionary national assembly, he and Jean Marie Collot d'Herbois were the two members of the ultrarevolutionary Hebértists (see Hébert, Jacques René) faction to sit on the Committee of Public Safety. A consumate politician, he survived the execution of Hébert, sucessfully intruiged against Georges Danton, and helped bring about the downfall of Robespierre on 9 Thermidor. He was deported to French Guiana for his role in the Reign of Terror. He refused an amnesty offered by Napoleon Bonaparte (later Emperor Napoleon I). Ultimately he went to Haiti, where he died.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Billaud-Varenne, Jean Nicolas." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . 25 Jun. 2019 <>.

"Billaud-Varenne, Jean Nicolas." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . (June 25, 2019).

"Billaud-Varenne, Jean Nicolas." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved June 25, 2019 from

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

The Chicago Manual of Style

American Psychological Association

  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.