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Andijan (ăndĬzhăn´, əndyējän´) or Andizhan (ăndĬzhăn´, əndyēzhän´), city (1991 pop. 298,000), capital of Andijan region, Uzbekistan, in the Fergana Valley, on the Andijan-Say River. It is an industrial center in an irrigated area that produces fruits, cotton, and silk. The city is traversed by numerous irrigation canals. It was a major stop on the caravan route between the Persian and Chinese empires. It was seized by Russia in 1876, and was later incorporated into the USSR's Uzbek SSR. In 2005 the city was the scene of an uprising against the Uzbekistan government that was brutally suppressed.