National Liberation Army (ELN)—Colombia
National Liberation Army (ELN)—Colombia
The National Liberation Army (ELN) in Colombia is a Marxist insurgent group formed in 1965 by urban intellectuals inspired by Fidel Castro and Che Guevara. ELN began a dialogue with Colombian officials in 1999 following a campaign of mass kidnappings—each involving at least one U.S. citizen—to demonstrate its strength and continuing viability and force the Pastrana administration to negotiate. Peace talks between Bogota and the ELN started in 1999 and continued sporadically through 2001 until Bogota broke them off. Negotiations ultimately resumed in Havana, Cuba, by the end of 2001.
Organization activities. The ELN uses kidnapping, hijacking, bombing, extortion, and guerrilla war. ELN boasts a modest conventional military capability. ELN annually conducts hundreds of kidnappings for ransom, often targeting foreign employees of large corporations, especially in the petroleum industry. ELN attacks frequently target energy infrastructure and the group has inflicted major damage on pipelines and the electric distribution network.
ELN has an estiamted 3,000 to 5,000 armed combatants and an unknown number of active supporters. The ELN is active mostly in rural and mountainous areas of north, northeast, and southwest Colombia, and Venezuela border regions. Cuba provides ELN fighters some medical care and offers political consultation to its leadership.
█ FURTHER READING:
Taylor, Francis X. U.S. Department of State. Patterns of Global Terrorism 2001, Annual Report: On the Record Briefing. May 21, 2002. <http://www.state.gov/s/ct/rls/rm/10367.htm> (April 17, 2003).
U.S. Department of State. Annual Reports. <http://www.state.gov/www/global/terrorism/annual_reports.html> (April 16, 2003).
Terrorism, Philosophical and Ideological Origins
Terrorist and Para-State Organizations
Terrorist Organization List, United States
Terrorist Organizations, Freezing of Assets
"National Liberation Army (ELN)—Colombia." Encyclopedia of Espionage, Intelligence, and Security. . Encyclopedia.com. (November 20, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/politics/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/national-liberation-army-eln-colombia
"National Liberation Army (ELN)—Colombia." Encyclopedia of Espionage, Intelligence, and Security. . Retrieved November 20, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/politics/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/national-liberation-army-eln-colombia
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.