Griggs v. Duke Power Co. 401 U.S. 924 (1971)
GRIGGS v. DUKE POWER CO. 401 U.S. 924 (1971)
Although subject to narrower interpretations, Griggs is viewed as establishing that employment selection criteria that disqualify blacks at higher rates than whites may violate Title VII of the civil rights act of 1964 even if the selection criteria are not chosen for discriminatory purposes. Griggs opened the door to vast numbers of Title VII actions seeking to establish violations through statistical analysis of the relative effect of employment criteria on minorities. Griggs 's emphasis on effects also influenced non-Title VII cases. Until washington v. davis (1976) was decided, many courts and analysts relied in part on Griggs to interpret the equal protection clause to prohibit unequal effects. Even after Davis, Griggs 's effects test continued to influence litigation under Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, Title VIII of the civil rights act of 1968, and other provisions.
(see also: Legislation.)