Barberry, Latin name Berberis vulgaris, is native to Europe, where it is commonly used as an ornamental shrub. It is also commonly grown in North America. Its close relative, Berberis aquifolium, is a native of North America, and is also known as Oregon grape. Native Americans originally taught settlers its value as a medicinal herb. Two other species of the plant, Nepalese and Indian barberry, are native to those areas and possess similar qualities.
Barberry is a perennial herb that is usually around 8 ft (2.4 m) tall, but can grow up to 10 ft (3 m) high. It bears yellow flowers, red or black berries, and small rounded fleshy leaves. It flourishes in dry sandy soil, and prefers a sunny location. Research has established that the active alkaloids in barberry belong to the isoquinoline family. They are berberine, berbamine, oxyacanthine, bervulcine, columbamine, isotetrandrine, jatrorrhizine, magnoflorine, and vulvracine. Other components include resin, tannin, and chelidonic acid, among others.
Barberry and other berberine-containing plants have been used throughout history for their medicinal properties. Chinese medicine has records of such use dating back over 3,000 years. In addition to the fact that these plants have been tried and tested over time, recent research has indeed confirmed what herbalists have been teaching for millennia—berberine has remarkable properties.
The berries of the barberry plant are traditionally used to make jams and jellies, and the plant is used to make a dye. However, its culinary use is only minor compared to its importance as a member of the herbal Materia Medica.
The medicinal actions of barberry are traditionally classified as being cholagogue, hepatic, antiemetic, bitter and laxative. Its main active constituent, berberine, has recently been the subject of much research (it is the active constituent of a number of valuable herbs, barberry and goldenseal being two important examples), and has been proven effective against a variety of ailments.
Barberry is chiefly valued as an efficient liver cleanser, due to its ability to correct liver function and promote the flow of bile. It is good for heartburn , stomach
upsets, including gastritis , ulcers and ulcerative bowel conditions, and is an effective appetite stimulant. It has also been recommended for renal colic and the treatment of renal calculi, where it is claimed to allay burning and soreness.
The herb has significant antibacterial, antiviral and antifungal properties, and has even demonstrated antiprotozoal properties, so it is an extremely valuable weapon against infection and fever . It is recommended for use against diarrhea , whether of non-specific type, such as gastroenteritis , or from an identified source such as cholera. It is also capable of inhibiting the growth of Giardia lamblia, Trichomonas vaginalis, and Entamoeba histolytica. In fact, barberry is capable of similar action to Metronidazole, a common antiprotozoal medication, but has the advantage of no side effects.
Berberine, the active constituent of barberry, inhibits Candida and other fungal growth, but does not affect beneficial bacteria such as Acidophilus and Bifidus. Barberry is particularly useful for skin infections , for which it is often taken internally, and has even been found effective against psoriasis .
It is often used against bronchial infections, as it is capable of breaking down and dispersing mucous accumulations, and controlling further secretions. It is an effective sedative, is capable of lowering blood pressure, and is an effective uterine stimulant. Barberry is also taken for gallstones and inflammation of the gallbladder. It has the ability to correct an enlarged spleen.
Barberry is useful for correcting menstrual irregularities, correcting anemia , as a treatment for vaginitis , and even as a tonic for a hangover . It is a suitable medication for gouty constitutions. It is recommended for strengthening the patient during convalescence, as it acts as an immune stimulant.
Barberry can be used to treat malaria and even Leishmaniasis, which is a protozoal infection. Nicholas Culpeper praised the barberry plant highly, and stated that the berries are just as useful as the bark. He recommended their use for the cure of ringworm, in addition to the ailments already mentioned.
Because it is capable of increasing blood supply, barberry may be of use to those suffering from ventricular heart defects. Berberine is used in China to treat white blood cell depression when caused by chemotherapy or radiation treatments.
The bark of the roots or stems are the parts used medicinally.
The dried herb may be taken in a decoction, for which place one teaspoonful of the herb in a cup of water and bring to the boil. Leave for about fifteen minutes and drink. This may be taken three time daily. The decoction may also be used as a gargle in cases of sore throat .
If a tincture is being used, l–2 ml may be taken three times daily.
Herbalists recommend that in cases of gallbladder disease, barberry combined with fringe tree bark and black root are an effective treatment.
For an effective liver cleanse, herbalists recommend a combination of one part barberry, one part wild yam, one part dandelion , and one half part licorice root, simmered in one pint of water for ten minutes, then strained through a coffee filter.
The bark is sometimes made into a poultice for the treatment of skin lesions, and a compress is useful for swollen eye lids and conjunctivitis .
Barberry root should not be taken by pregnant women because of its stimulant effect on the uterus. Those with heart disease or chronic respiratory problems should only take barberry after consultation with a herbalist, naturopath, or medical specialist.
The cultivation of barberry is restricted in some areas, as it hosts and promotes stem rust, a scourge to cereal crops.
If in any doubt, it is always best to consult a herbal practitioner regarding dosage of herbs.
Berberine (an active ingredient of barberry), has been found to affect normal bilirubin in infants, so in theory, it may have an adverse effect on jaundice .
Strong extracts may cause stomach upsets, so use of barberry for a period of more than two consecutive weeks is not recommended.
Barberry, if taken to excess may cause nose bleeds, lethargy, kidney irritation, skin and eye inflammation, in addition to headaches and low blood sugar.
Barberry, or any herb containing berberine, has been found to interact with Sumycin, Helidac (Tetrecycline), Vibramycin, Helidac (Tetracycline), Doxycycline, and Achromycin, causing them to be less effective, and to affect their absorption.
Culpeper, Nicholas. Culpeper's Complete Herbal. London: Bloomsbury Books, 1992.
Duke, James A. The Green Pharmacy. New York: St. Martin's Paperbacks, 1998.
Grieve, M. A Modern Herbal. London: Tiger Books International, 1992.
Hoffman, David L. "Barberry." Healt World Online. <http://www.healthy.net/asp.>
Birdsall, Timothy and Gregory Kelly. "Berberine: Theraputic Potential of an Alkaloid found in several Medicinal plants." In Alternative Medicine Review [online database] Vol. 2, no. 2 (March 1997). <http://www.thorne.com/altmedrev/fulltext/berb.html.>
Barberries are about 600 species of plants in the genus Berberis, family Berberidaceae, occurring throughout the Northern Hemisphere and South America . Most species of barberry are shrubs or small trees, and many of these have persistent, evergreen leaves. The flowers are small, arranged in clusters, and insect pollinated. The fruits of barberries are multiple-seeded berries.
Barberry hybrids are often cultivated as attractive, ornamental shrubs. Some of these commonly cultivated species include the Japanese barberry (Berberis thunbergii), common barberry (B. vulgaris), Oregon grape (Mahonia aquifolium), and heavenly bamboo (Nandina domestica).
The common barberry is a native of Europe , with attractive foliage and bright-red berries. The common barberry has been widely planted in North America as a garden shrub, and it has escaped to natural habitats, where it can maintain viable populations.
The presence of wild populations of common barberry is considered a significant agricultural problem, because this species is an alternate host in the life cycle of the wheat rust (Puccinia graminis). This fungus is a pathogen of wheat (Triticum aestivum), one of the most important food-producing plants in North America, and the world. The control of populations of common barberry is critical to control of the wheat rust.
The inner bark and roots of the common barberry are bright yellow, and were once used to make a natural dye. Practitioners of folk medicine thought that this yellow color indicated that common barberry could be useful in the treatment of jaundice . However, this barberry has not proven to be useful for this purpose.
There are also native species of barberry in North America, for example, the American barberry (Berberis canadensis) of the eastern United States. Other native species in the barberry family include various shrubs known as Oregon grapes (for example, Mahonia repens). Several species of spring-flowering, herbaceous perennials occur in the understory of hardwood forests in eastern North America, including blue cohosh (Caulophyllum thalictroides), mayapple (Podophyllum peltatum), and twin-leaf (Jeffersonia diphylla). All of these genera of herbaceous plants of eastern North America have counterparts in the same genus is eastern Asia , but not in western North America. This represents a biogeographically interesting, disjunct pattern of distribution.
See also Rusts and smuts.
Barberries are about 600 species of plants in the genus Berberis, family Berberidaceae, occurring throughout the Northern Hemisphere and South America. Most species are shrubs or small trees, and many of these have persistent, evergreen leaves. The flowers are small, arranged in clusters, and insect pollinated. The fruits of barberries are multiple-seeded berries.
Barberry hybrids are often cultivated as attractive, ornamental shrubs. Some of these commonly cultivated species include the Japanese barberry (Berberis thunbergii ), common barberry (B. vulgaris ), Oregon grape (Mahonia aquifolium ), and heavenly bamboo (Nandina domestica ).
The common barberry is a native of Europe, with attractive foliage and bright red berries. It has been widely planted in North America as a garden shrub, and it has escaped to natural habitats, where it can maintain viable populations. This is a significant agricultural problem, because this species is an alternate host for the wheat rust (Puccinia graminis ) fungus. This pathogen (Triticum aestivum ) affects one of the most important food-producing plants in the world. Controlling common barberry poplulations is critical to controlling wheat rust.
The inner bark and roots of the common barberry are bright yellow, and were once used to make a natural dye. Practitioners of folk medicine mistakenly thought that this yellow color indicated that common barberry could be useful in the treatment of jaundice.
There are also native species of barberry in North America, for example, the American barberry (Berberis canadensis ), found in the eastern United States. Other native species include various shrubs known as Oregon grapes (e.g., Mahonia repens ). Several species of spring-flowering herbaceous perennials occur in the under-story of hardwood forests in eastern North America, including blue cohosh (Caulophyllum thalictroides ), mayapple (Podophyllum peltatum ), and twin-leaf (Jeffersonia diphylla ). All have counterparts in the same genus in eastern Asia, but not in western North America. This represents a biogeographically interesting, disjunct distribution pattern.
See also Rusts and smuts.
barberry (bär´bĕr´ē), common name for the family Berberidaceae, and specifically for the spiny barberries (Berberis species). The family includes perennial herbs and shrubs found in the Northern Hemisphere. The fruit is often a colorful, winter-persistent berry. The spiny barberries are primarily Asian in origin. B. vulgaris, the common barberry, is naturalized in the United States and is often cultivated for hedges, but it is a host for one stage of wheat rust, a fungal pathogen that destroys the wheat plant. The Japanese barberry (B. thunbergii) is resistant. Other members of the family are the blue cohosh or papooseroot (Caulophyllum thalictroides), the May apple (genus Podophyllum), and the Oregon grape (Mahonia aquifolium), an evergreen shrub that is the floral emblem of Oregon. The edible berries of these three are sometimes used for condiments and jellies. A compound derived from barberry, berberine, is used as an antibacterial agent. The May apple was used as a medicinal by various Native American groups, and two semisynthetic podophyllotoxins, etoposide and teniposide, are used in cancer chemotherapy. The barberry family is classified in the division Magnoliophyta, class Magnoliopsida, order Ranunculales.
bar·ber·ry / ˈbärˌberē/ • n. (pl. -ies) a thorny shrub (genus Berberis, family Berberidaceae) that bears yellow flowers and red or blue-black berries.