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rust (in botany)

rust, in botany, name for various parasitic fungi of the order Uredinales and for the diseases of plants that they cause. Rusts form reddish patches of spores on the host plant. About 7,000 species are known. Some grow entirely on one plant; others require two hosts, plants of two species, in order to complete their life cycles. Cedar rust, for instance, grows on cedar and on apple trees, needing both for development. Blister rust of pine grows on pines and either currant or gooseberry bushes. Black stem rust Puccinia graminis is one of the most destructive to wheat, rye, and other grasses; barberry is an alternate host. A new strain of stem rust identified in 1999 is devastating to even rust-resistant wheat strains. Rusts attack all cereal crops and many fruits, vegetables, forage crops, ornamental plants, and forest trees. Rusts are hard to eradicate; control measures include the use of rust-resistant varieties of seed and the elimination of alternate hosts in agricultural areas. Rusts are classified in the kingdom Fungi, phylum (division) Basidiomycota, order Uredinales.

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rust

rust / rəst/ • n. 1. a reddish- or yellowish-brown flaky coating of iron oxide that is formed on iron or steel by oxidation, esp. in the presence of moisture. ∎ fig. a state of deterioration or disrepair resulting from neglect or lack of use: they are here to scrape the rust off the derelict machinery of government. 2. a disease of plants that results in reddish or brownish patches, caused by a fungus (Puccinia and other genera, order Uredinales, class Teliomycetes). 3. a reddish-brown color: [in comb.] his rust-colored hair. • v. [intr.] be affected with rust: the blades had rusted away | [as adj.] (rusting) rusting machinery. ∎ fig. deteriorate through neglect or lack of use. DERIVATIVES: rust·less adj.

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rust

rust Corrosion of iron or its alloys by a combination of air and water. Carbon dioxide from the air dissolves in water to form an acid solution that attacks the iron to form iron (II) oxide. This is then oxidized by oxygen in the air to reddish-brown iron (III) oxide. Rusting may be prevented by galvanizing.

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rust

rust A plant disease caused by a fungus of the class Urediniomycetes. The characteristic symptom is the development of spots or pustules bearing masses of powdery spores which are usually rust-coloured, yellow, or brown. Infected plants may also show distortions or gall-like swellings. Compare white rust.

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rust

rust A plant disease caused by a fungus of the class Urediniomycetes. The characteristic symptom is the development of spots or pustules bearing masses of powdery spores which are usually rust-coloured, yellow, or brown. Infected plants may also show distortions or gall-like swellings. Compare WHITE RUST.

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rust

rust In botany, group of fungi that live as parasites on many kinds of higher plants. Rusts damage cereal crops and several fruits and vegetables. They have complex life cycles that involve growth on more than one host plant.See also fungus

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rust

rust brownish coating formed on iron and steel by oxidation. OE. rūst = OS., (O)HG. rost, (M)Du. roest, rel. to RED.
Hence vb. XIII. rusty (-Y1) OE. rūstiġ.

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rust

rustadjust, august, bust, combust, crust, dust, encrust, entrust, gust, just, lust, mistrust, must, robust, rust, thrust, trust, undiscussed •stardust • sawdust • angel dust •bloodlust • wanderlust • upthrust

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rust

rust Rust Belt a part of a country considered to be characterized by declining industry, ageing factories, and a falling population, especially the American Midwest and NE states. Coinage of the term is often attributed to the US Democratic politician Walter Mondale, who opposed Ronald Reagan in the presidential election of 1984.

See also better to wear out than rust out.

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Rust

Rust

Rust , family of German musicians:

(1) Friedrich Wilhelm Rust , violinist, pianist, and composer; b. Wörlitz, near Dessau, July 6, 1739; d. Dessau, Feb. 28, 1796. He was a child prodigy. He studied law in Halle (1758–62), where he also received instruction in music from W. F. Bach. He then found a patron in Prince Leopold III of Anhalt-Dessau and continued his studies with G. F. Müller (violin and keyboard); also studied with Karl Höckh in Zerbst; during a sojourn in Potsdam (1763–64), he took courses in violin with Franz Benda and in composition with C. P. E. Bach. After traveling in Italy with his patron (1765), he returned to Dessau to serve the prince; was his court music director (from 1775). He was esteemed as a composer of instrumental music. See R. Czach, ed., F. W. Rust: Werke für Klavier und Streichinstrumente, Das Erbe Deutscher Musik, 2nd series, Mitteldeutschland, I (1939).

Bibliography

F. Hosaeus, F. Vf. R. und das Dessauer Musikleben 1766–1796 (Dessau, 1882); E. Prieger, F. Vf. R.: Ein Vorganger Beethovens (Cologne, 1894); R. Czach, F. Vf. R.(Essen, 1927).

(2) Wilhelm Karl Rust , pianist, organist, and teacher, son of the preceding; b. Dessau, April 29, 1787; d. there, April 18, 1855. A child prodigy, he studied with his father, then went to Halle to study philosophy (1805), where he continued his music training with Turk. He subsequently went to Vienna (1807) and won the praise of Beethoven for his expertise as a keyboard artist. After serving as organist of the Protestant church (1819–27), he returned to Dessau as a teacher.

(3) Wilhelm Rust , organist, pianist, teacher, editor, and composer, grandson of (1) Friedrich Wilhelm Rust; b. Dessau, Aug. 15, 1822; d. Leipzig, May 2, 1892. He studied piano and organ with his uncle, (2) Wilhelm Karl Rust , then composition with F. Schneider (1840–43). He went to Berlin in 1849 as a teacher; joined the Singakademie and the Bach Soc, serving as director of the latter (1862–75); was also made the Berlin representative of the Leipzig Bach-Gesellschaft (1853) and was editor in chief of the complete works of Bach publ. under its auspices (from 1858). He served as organist at the church of St. Luke (from 1861) and taught composition at the Stern Cons. (from 1870). In 1878 he settled in Leipzig as organist of the Thomaskirche and a teacher at the Cons.; was named Kantor of the Thomasschule in 1880. He wrote some choral pieces, sacred songs, and keyboard music.

—Nicolas Slonimsky/Laura Kuhn/Dennis McIntire

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