status: Endangered, IUCN Endangered, ESA
range: Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, North Korea, Russia, Thailand, Vietnam
Description and biology
Tigers are members of the cat family. They are the biggest of the big cats, a group that includes leopards, lions, and jaguars. There are eight subspecies of tiger. Three of these—the Bali, Caspian, and Javan—all became extinct in the twentieth century. The remaining five subspecies are the Bengal (or Indian), Indo-Chinese, Siberian (or Amur), South Chinese, and Sumatran.
The color, size, and general appearance of tigers varies according to the subspecies. On average, a male tiger has a head and body length of 5 to 9 feet (1.5 to 2.7 meters) and a tail length of 2 to 3 feet (0.6 to 0.9 meter). It stands about 3.5 feet (1 meter) tall at its shoulder and weighs between 220 and 660 pounds (100 and 300 kilograms). Since the animal is found in a variety of climates, from the snowy forests of Siberia to the jungles of Indonesia, the length of its coat
varies. In general, its coat is orange-yellow in color, with numerous black stripes. Its underparts are white. The striping pattern varies not only among subspecies but with each individual tiger.
Tigers are mainly nocturnal (active at night). They are able climbers, good swimmers, and fast runners. Tigers can leap up to 32 feet (10 meters) and swim up to 18 miles (29 kilometers). They are carnivores (meat-eaters), preying on deer, antelope, wild pigs, cattle, and other mammals. Their senses of hearing, sight, and smell are all keen. Tigers stalk or ambush their prey, pouncing on it from the rear or the side. The prey is usually killed by a bite to the neck or spine. Despite their abilities, tigers are successful hunters only about 10 percent of the time. Because of this, most tigers travel between 10 and 20 miles (16 and 32 kilometers) a night in search of food. Tigers that attack and eat humans are generally too old or sick to hunt wild animals.
Tigers are solitary animals with home ranges that vary between 4 and 1,500 square miles (10 and 3,885 square kilometers). They are not entirely loners, as they will band together to hunt and to share their kill. Males and females come together to mate at any time during the year, though primarily between November and April. After a gestation (pregnancy) period of just over 100 days, a female gives birth to a litter of two to four cubs. The cubs are blind and helpless for the first two weeks. They nurse for six to eight weeks, then begin accompanying their mother on hunting trips. After almost two years, they leave their mother's territory to establish their own.
Habitat and current distribution
Tigers occupy a wide variety of habitats, including rain forests, evergreen forests, mangrove swamps, marshlands, grasslands, and savannas.
There are currently as few as 5,000 tigers left in the wild. The Bengal tiger has the largest population of any tiger subspecies. Found in India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Nepal, and Bhutan, it has an estimated population of about 3,750. The Indo-Chinese tiger is found in Laos, Malaysia, Thailand, Myanmar, and Vietnam. The South Chinese tiger, now almost extinct in the wild, is found only in southern China. The Siberian tiger, the largest of all subspecies, is found in North Korea, northern China, and the Amur-Ussuri region of Siberia in Russia. The Sumatran tiger, the smallest of all living tiger subspecies, is found on the island of Sumatra, Indonesia.
History and conservation measures
The protection of tigers has been an international concern since the 1970s. At the beginning of the twentieth century, an estimated 100,000 tigers roamed the Asian forests and grasslands. That population has since decreased by about 95 percent. The Bali tiger, the smallest of the eight subspecies, became extinct in 1937. The Caspian tiger, once found as far west as Turkey, disappeared in the 1970s. The Javan tiger was last seen in 1983.
Historically, the tiger has been hunted as a trophy and for its beautiful coat. For centuries, many Asian cultures have used other tiger parts (bones, eyes, teeth, nails) in medicines, believing they cure diseases such as rheumatism and dysentery. Some people even believe that a soup made from the genitals of a male tiger can increase sexual ability. International treaties now protect tigers, but because of these ancient beliefs, the animals are still hunted and traded. Conservationists believe that two or three tigers are killed each day in China and Taiwan.
The primary threat to the tiger's current survival is habitat destruction. As forests throughout Asia are cleared for timber or to create farmland, tigers are forced into smaller and smaller areas. These tiny islands of forest do not hold enough prey for the animals, and they are forced to feed on livestock and even humans. Increased contact with humans has only resulted in more tiger deaths.
In 1972, the Indian government launched Project Tiger, a program that established 23 tiger reserves. Even though these reserves are patrolled by guards, poaching or illegal hunting still takes place.
Great efforts made by conservationists (people protecting the natural world) in concert with the Russian government and local residents seem to have stabilized the Siberian tiger population in eastern Russia in the early 2000s. Increased scientific understanding of habitat requirements is leading many biologists to believe that the tiger population in the wild can be increased.
tiger, large carnivore of the cat family, Panthera tigris, found in the forests of Asia. There are six subspecies of P. tigris: Amur or Siberian, Sumatran, Malayan, North Indochinese, Bengal, and South China or Amoy. The differences in subspecies are defined for the most part by their ranges. Amur tigers, commonly called Siberian, are native to the area of the Amur River in China, North Korea, and Russia. The Sumatran tiger is found only in Sumatra, the Malayan on the Malay Peninsula, the North Indochinese in parts of Indochina and S China; the South China tiger in central and E China, and the Bengal tiger in India, Bangladesh, Nepal, and Myanmar. Their habitats range from mountain forests to equatorial rain forests.
Tigers are the largest species of the cat family. Male tigers are generally about 8 to 10 ft (2.4–3 m) long, including the 3-ft (1.8-m) tail. The Siberian tiger may be 13 ft (4 m) long, including the tail, and weigh 650 lb (290 kg), much larger than any lion. The coat of the tiger is orange-yellow with numerous prominent black stripes; black and albino specimens are sometimes found. The Siberian tiger tends to be the lightest in coloring. The male tiger has no mane comparable to that of a lion, although it may have a ruff around the sides of the head. Tigers and lions are quite similar anatomically and can be interbred.
Tigers are solitary animals and usually hunt at night. A male tiger will have a large range that will overlap with the ranges of several females. Females give birth to two or three cubs, which they raise and train for about two years. Tigers kill a variety of animals, including deer, antelope, wild pigs, and cattle. Tigers try to remain out of sight and hearing of their enemies, especially humans; they prefer fleeing to fighting. They can be killed by wild dogs, elephants, and water buffalos. Man-eating tigers are usually individuals who are too old or sick to capture wild animals. Tigers are good swimmers and enjoy bathing, especially in hot weather, which appears to make them quite uncomfortable. They are poor climbers, taking to trees only in emergencies.
The tiger is an endangered species. Trophy hunting of tigers was a common "sport" in the past, especially during the time of the Raj in India, when tens of thousands of Bengal tigers were shot. The greatest threats to the tiger now, however, are loss of natural habitat, loss of prey species such as deer and wild cattle to hunting by humans, and poaching. Tiger bone is used in traditional Chinese medicines to treat a variety of ailments, including rheumatism and impotence, and its sale and use continue despite a ban imposed by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) in 1976.
Three tiger subspecies, the Caspian, Javan, and Balinese tigers, are extinct; the South China tiger is very near extinction. According to 1995 population estimates, the Bengal tiger is believed to be the most numerous, with a population of 4,000. It is followed by the Indochinese tiger (1,100), the Sumatran tiger (400), and the Siberian tiger (250). Some population rebounds have been noted since then, however, in eastern Siberia, Nepal, and some parts of India owing to increased conservation efforts, but the Bengal tiger population in India has suffered from serious poaching for the Chinese medicinal and animal skin markets. Its population was estimated to have fallen to nearly one third the 1995 estimate by 2008, but subsequently the numbers recovered to more than 2,000. Captive breeding programs for tigers have met with considerable success but are plagued by a lack of space and the problem of maintaining genetic purity between subspecies that are defined more by range than by biological differences.
Tigers are classified in the phylum Chordata, subphylum Vertebrata, class Mammalia, order Carnivora, family Felidae.
have a tiger by the tail have embarked on a course of action which proves unexpectedly difficult but which cannot easily or safely be abandoned. Recorded from the late 20th century; an alternative way of referring to the same predicament is ride a tiger, with allusion to the saying he who rides a tiger is afraid to dismount (see ride).
tiger economy in the 1980s, used for the dynamic economy of any of the smaller East Asian countries, especially that of Singapore, Taiwan, or South Korea, or of Hong Kong; these original Four Tigers of the early 1980s were later joined by Malaysia, Thailand, and the Philippines, before economic problems in the 1990s sharply reduced the strength and dominance of the region. The successful Irish economy of the last years has frequently been designated as the Celtic Tiger.
Tiger Tim a cartoon character, leader of a group of animals known as the Bruin Boys, who first appeared in the Daily Mirror in 1904, and subsequently in the Children's Encyclopaedia monthly reissue from 1910 and Rainbow (1914–56). He has also figured in a number of annuals.
See also better to live one day as a tiger, paper tiger.
ti·ger / ˈtīgər/ • n. a very large solitary cat (Panthera tigris) with a yellow-brown coat striped with black, native to the forests of Asia but becoming increasingly rare. ∎ used to refer to someone fierce, determined, or ambitious: despite his wound, he still fought like a tiger one of the sport's young tigers. ∎ (also tiger economy) a dynamic economy of one of the smaller eastern Asian countries, esp. that of Singapore, Taiwan, or South Korea. PHRASES: have a tiger by the tail have embarked on a course of action that proves unexpectedly difficult but that cannot easily or safely be abandoned. ORIGIN: Middle English: from Old French tigre, from Latin tigris, from Greek.
Hence tigress (-ESS1) XVII.