Major Industries and Commercial Activity
In May 2005, Forbes chose Lincoln as the seventh "Best Smaller Metro" area for business and careers with a third place ranking for income growth. Located in a grain and livestock producing region, Lincoln has since its founding been a communications, distribution, and wholesaling hub. Important industries are the manufacture and repair of locomotives, flour and feed milling, grain storage, and diversified manufacturing. State government and the University of Nebraska constitute approximately a quarter of the city's economy, but about 90 percent of Lincoln's some 8,000 employers are companies with 20 or fewer employees. Lincoln is also the corporate headquarters of several insurance companies.
During the 1980s and 1990s Lincoln experienced sustained growth that brought economic expansion, with the employment base increasing 2.5 percent annually. Despite the recession in the early 2000s, retail trade, for example, continued to grow at a higher rate than other metropolitan areas in the state. Although the manufacturing industry has typically shown growth above the state average, the overall employment figures have declined with the economic downturn.
A number of Lincoln's local companies conduct business throughout the United States and in foreign countries. Among them are Ameritas Financial Services, Selection Research Inc./Gallup Poll, Lester Electrical, and Cook Family Foods. Sandhills Publishing (formerly Peed Corporation), publishers of national trade magazines, has maintained its facilities in Lincoln since 1985. MDS Harris Laboratories, a pharmaceutical testing and research firm that serves all 50 states and dozens of nations abroad has an office in Beijing, China, and has expanded its medical testing business into the development of a biological warfare vaccine for the U.S. Army, which was the first such test conducted under Food and Drug Administration standards. In addition to its traditional strength of testing medicines on "well normal" people to confirm safety standards, the company tests how people with illnesses react to new medicines. Pfizer Laboratories supplies veterinary products in the United States and dozens of foreign countries.
Items and goods produced: creamery products, farm machinery, farm belts, veterinary supplies, radiator hoses, telephone equipment, biological products, pharmaceutical supplies, plumbing supplies, pumps, motors, motor scooters, wax, filing equipment and office supplies, and printing, lithographic, engraving, metal, stone, and concrete products
Incentive Programs—New and Existing Businesses
The Lincoln Independent Business Association, the Chamber of Commerce, Southeast Community College, the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, and the city of Lincoln operate a small business resource center that helps businesses secure financing, permits, and information about other resources. Several major established industrial parks cover more than 1,000 acres and are designed for both heavy industry and multiple use. The City of Lincoln Research and Development Department, with assistance from the Nebraska Research and Development Authority, provides block grant funds to aid startup businesses. The Lincoln Partnership for Economic Development (LPED) began formal operations in 1996. LPED is a community-based, public-private, permanent venture to provide strategic, focused direction for Lincoln's economic development activities. The Community Development Resources (CDR) provides loans and capital with a focus on assisting low-income, minority groups, and women.
Qualified Omaha businesses can take advantage of state and local programs such as the Nebraska Business and Development Center and the Procurement Technical Assistance Center, which provide technical and research assistance. Invest Nebraska partners with the state of Nebraska along with other donations to introduce entrepreneurs to individual investors and venture capital firms. Federal and state programs include the Minority Enterprise Small Business Investment Corporation, the Nebraska Investment Finance Authority (NIFA), various Small Business Administration loans, the Nebraska Research and Development Authority, the Small Business Innovation Research Program (SBIR), and the Urban Development Action Grant.
The state of Nebraska has emphasized its commitment to revitalized economic growth in all parts of the state with a series of laws designed to make the state an even better place to do business. Firms can now earn a series of tax credits and refunds for investment and new job creation through the provisions of the Employment and Investment Growth Act (LB 775), as well as the Employment Expansion and Investment Incentive Act (LB 270), the Enterprise Zone Act (LB 725), Quality Jobs Act (LB 829), Incentive Electric Rates (LB 828), and Nebraska Redevelopment Act (LB 830).
The Community Development Resources (CDR) offers a variety of training and workshops for both profit and nonprofit businesses, such as writing a business plan. For manufacturing firms, the Nebraska Department of Economic Development facilitates a Customized Job Training Program for eligible companies and disperses job training grants. The Nebraska Worker Training Program works to update the skills of existing employees and awards grants quarterly.
Lincoln's downtown business district continues to thrive and its growth is a critical focus for city planners who implemented a "Downtown Master Plan" beginning in 2004 that works to ensure new construction and renovation along with maintaining the natural beauty of the area. Proposals include a civic square with 100,000 square feet of office space and 5,000 square feet of retail space along with new hotels, conversion of a power station to condominiums, and additional parking structures. Several projects have already been completed including a new movie theater and renovation of the Cornhusker Hotel.
The Lincoln Public Schools system expanded with the opening of two new high schools, Lincoln North Star in 2003 and Lincoln Southwest in 2002, with monies from a $100 million school bond.
Economic Development Information: Lincoln Partnership for Economic Development, 1135 M St., Ste. 200, Lincoln, NE 68508; telephone (402)436-2350; Fax (402)436-2360
Lincoln is connected with national and world markets via 2 major railroads—Burlington Northern/Santa Fe and Union Pacific—that provide piggyback transportation; 22 interstate and 9 intrastate motor freight companies; and 6 national and several local air express and freight carriers. Next to the Lincoln Municipal Airport lies a 372-acre Foreign Trade Zone (FTZ) that helps in facilitating imported goods. The city is also conveniently situated within 50 miles of water transportation atMississippi River terminals.
Labor Force and Employment Outlook
Lincoln's labor force is described as dependable, productive, and highly skilled and educated. Employers may draw from a large student population. Work stoppages are rare, with unionization estimated around 25 percent. As agriculture declines, more rural laborers are seeking jobs in the city.
A diversified economy has enabled employment in Lincoln to remain resilient since the nationwide recession during the early 2000s. Among non-manufacturing categories, Lincoln has been strong in construction, wholesale and retail trade, and services. Lincoln has a large number of information systems jobs with small companies that continues to grow at a rate of nearly eight percent.
The following is a summary of data regarding the Lincoln metropolitan area labor force, 2004 annual average:
Size of non-agricultural labor force: 168,000
Number of workers employed in . . .
construction and mining: 8,800
trade, transportation, and utilities: 28,600
financial activities: 11,600
professional and business services: 16,900
educational and health services: 23,400
leisure and hospitality: 15,700
other services: 6,900
Average hourly earnings of production workers employed in manufacturing: $15.95
Unemployment rate: 3.9% (February 2005)
|Largest employers||Number of employees|
|State of Nebraska||18,653|
|Lincoln Public Schools||5,900|
|University of Nebraska||5,534|
|BryanLGH Medical Center||4,200|
|City of Lincoln||2,746|
|B&R Stores, Inc.||1,814|
|Alltel Communications||1,000 to 2,499|
|Ameritas Life Insurance Corp.||1,000 to 2,499|
|Burlington Northern/Santa Fe||1,000 to 2,499|
|Duncan Aviation, Inc.||1,000 to 2,499|
Cost of Living
The city of Lincoln boasts a low tax burden with a high quality of services. The following is a summary of data regarding several key cost of living factors in the Lincoln area.
2004 (3rd Quarter) ACCRA Average House Price: $271,419
2004 (3rd Quarter) ACCRA Cost of Living Index: 95.9 (U.S. average = 100.0)
State income tax rate: Graduated from 2.56% to 6.84% (2004; rate set yearly by state legislature)
State sales tax rate: 5.5%
Local income tax rate: None
Local sales tax rate: 1.5%
Property tax rate: $2.051 per $100 of actual value (consoli-dated, 2004)
Economic Information: Lincoln Partnership for Economic Development, 1135 M St., Ste. 200, Lincoln, NE 68508; telephone (402)436-2350; Fax (402)436-2360
The Nebraska State Capitol Building was designed to reflect the spirit of the state of Nebraska; its large square base represents the Plains and its 400-foot tower is meant to convey the dreams of the pioneers. Described as the nation's first state Capitol to be designed to depict the state's cultural heritage and development, the building features an interior enhanced with mosaics, paintings, and murals portraying the history of Nebraska. On the Capitol grounds is Daniel Chester French's sculpture of the seated Abraham Lincoln.
Folsom Children's Zoo and Botanical Gardens presents more than 300 exotic animals from around the world on 19 acres that are lined with 7,000 annual flowers and more than 30 varieties of trees. Antelope Park stretches throughout the city and contains the Sunken Gardens with thousands of flowers, lily pools, and a waterfall. Pioneers Park Nature Center focuses on animals and prairie grasses native to 1850s Nebraska; animal exhibits include deer, elk, red foxes, wild turkeys, and wild buffalo.
Historic houses on view in Lincoln include Kennard House, home of Nebraska's first U.S. secretary of state Thomas P. Kennard; Fairview, residence of William Jennings Bryan; and the governor's mansion, which features a collection of dolls depicting Nebraska's first ladies in their inaugural gowns.
Arts and Culture
Lincoln is highly rated for the quality of the cultural activities in a city its size. The Lincoln Symphony opens its season with a pops concert followed by a subscription series of classical music at Lied Center for Performing Arts, which also hosts performances by Lincoln Midwest Ballet Company. Other local music offerings include the Nebraska Symphony Chamber Orchestra, Abendmusik, and the Kimball Series at the University of Nebraska. Lincoln's Zoo Bar is one of the nation's oldest blues clubs booking touring blues bands and rock artists.
Designed by Phillip Johnson, the Sheldon Memorial Art Gallery is located on the campus of the University of Nebraska and exhibits American art from the eighteenth through the twentieth centuries with an emphasis on the realist tradition and abstract expressionism.
The Museum of Nebraska History exhibits depict Nebraska from prehistoric times through the days of the Native American tribes of the Great Plains and on to pioneer days. The world's largest articulated fossil elephant is on display at the University of Nebraska State Museum's Elephant Hall, which is also home to Mueller Planetarium that offers laser shows. The American Historical Society of Germans from Russia Museum traces the history and culture of this ethnic group that settled in Lincoln in the nineteenth century. Lincoln is also home to the National Museum of Roller Skating, Great Plains Art Collection, and the Lincoln Children's Museum.
Arts and Culture Information: Lincoln Arts Council, 920 O St., Lincoln, NE 68508; telephone (402)434-2787; fax (402)434-2788; email [email protected]
Festivals and Holidays
Held the third weekend in June is Haymarket Heydays, a celebration of the state's railroad heritage that features a street fair, Farmers Market Craft Fair, musical events, and activities for children. July starts off with the bang of Independence Day fireworks at Oak Lake Park after a day of food and fun; later in the month, the July Jamm brings jazz, fine artists, and restaurateurs from around the state for a three-day event. In August, the largest downtown event is the RibFest, sponsored by the Nebraska Pork Producers, which features four days of barbequing and live music. The Nebraska State Fair draws about 600,000 visitors for 10 days, ending on Labor Day; the fair features national performers of country and rock music, midway rides, livestock shows, and agricultural and industrial exhibits. The Christmas season begins with the parade of the Star City Holiday Festival, a colorful event with floats, giant balloon characters, and costumed participants, held on the first Saturday in December; meanwhile the downtown area is aglow in holiday lights and decorations.
Sports for the Spectator
When the University of Nebraska Cornhuskers football team plays home games at Lincoln's Memorial Stadium on fall Saturday afternoons, the crowd of nearly 74,000 fans becomes the state's third-largest "city." Nicknamed Big Red because of their bright red uniforms, the team competes in the Big Twelve conference and had won nine or more games each season and played in a bowl game each season since 1972 until the streak ended with the 2004 season. The University of Nebraska also fields competitive teams in wrestling, volleyball, track and field, and men's and women's basketball.
The Lincoln Capitols of the National Indoor Football League is a minor league team in the Pacific Conference. Playing 13 regular-season games from March through July with home games at the Pershing Center, the team fields players from most of the state colleges and draws talent from across the country. Lincoln is also home to the Lincoln Stars in the western division of the United States Hockey League (USHL) who play at the State Fair Park Coliseum (the "Ice Box"). After winning the championship in the debut season in 1996–1997, they remained one of the league's top teams despite not capturing the Clark Cup again until 2002–2003.
Lincoln is the site of the high school state championships in basketball, wrestling, volleyball, gymnastics, and swimming and diving. Thoroughbred horse racing with parimutuel betting permitted takes place at the State Fair Park.
Sports for the Participant
For sports enthusiasts in Lincoln there are 106 parks on about 6,000 acres, more than 80 miles of bike paths and trails (most are paved), 11 golf courses, 11 outdoor pools, 8 recreation centers, about 65 tennis courts, and surrounding recreation areas totaling 15,000 acres with 10 lakes. Team and league sports for all age levels are also available. The Lincoln Track Club sponsors the Lincoln Marathon and Half Marathon each May. The Cornhusker State Games, attracting nearly 10,000 competitors, features sports such as badminton, biathlon, fencing, tae kwon do, archery, and wrestling. Wilderness Park, Lincoln's largest park, maintains bridle trails, jogging and exercise trails, and cross country ski trails. Holmes Lake and Park is available for non-motorized boating on its large lake; it also features the Hyde Memorial Observatory. The Pioneers Park Nature Center includes five miles of trails. Lincoln is surrounded by the seven Salt Valley Lakes with recreational areas providing opportunities for such pursuits as fishing, camping, and boating.
Shopping and Dining
The nation's longest straight main street is Lincoln's O Street, which runs all the way through the city; a number of retail centers are located along the route. Antiques, art galleries, and specialty shops are the focus in the Central Business District and Historic Haymarket District, which features more than 100 restaurants and clubs. Westfield Shoppingtown Gateway Mall is the area's largest enclosed shopping center with five department stores and a children's "Playtown." SouthPointe Pavilions claims 50 stores in its outdoor mall and presents free concerts on Friday nights throughout the summer. Local dining specialties include succulent Nebraska beef, barbecue ribs, and chicken, served at Skeeter Barnes among others, as well as other traditional American fare and ethnic favorites. Many of the national chain restaurants are represented, such as Olive Garden and Red Lobster.
Visitor Information: Lincoln Convention & Visitors Bureau, 1135 M St., Ste. 300, Lincoln, NE 68501; telephone (402)434-5335; toll-free (800)423-8212; fax (402)436-2360; email [email protected]
Saline Deposits Attract First Settlers
As early as 1853, salt companies were sending men to study the possibility of salt manufacture in the salt flats northwest of the present city of Lincoln. Actual processing by any salt company did not start until the early 1860s, but it was never commercially successful, and efforts to manufacture salt were abandoned around 1887. However, Captain W. T. Donovan, representing the Crescent Salt Company, settled on the west bank of Salt Creek near the intersection of Oak Creek in 1856. He named his claim Lancaster. By 1859 the area had sufficient population to be considered for organization of a county. Donovan participated in the committee that was to determine the site and name of the county seat. It was named after Donovan's home town of Lancaster, Pennsylvania.
Lancaster was a compromise choice between North Platters—who favored Omaha, the territorial capital since 1854—and South Platters—who vied for a capital site south of the Platte River. Ultimately Lancaster was chosen and a new name proposed: "Capital City." Lancaster was finally renamed Lincoln, after President Abraham Lincoln. August F. Harvey, a state surveyor, replatted Lincoln in 1867, setting up a grid system of streets lettered from A to Z, with O as the division point, and north and south blocks numbered. In the heart of downtown were four square blocks for the state Capitol and a proposed university. The city plan also called for the planting of more than two million trees, mostly oak, which would line boulevards and parks. The attention to the natural landscaping of the city is a civic responsibility each generation of Lincolnites since has taken seriously.
In December 1868, the state government moved its property in covered wagons to hide the transfer of power from armed Omahans upset with the relocation. Local investors feared that Lincoln would not remain the state capital long since it numbered just 30 inhabitants in 1867, but within a year 500 people lived there, and new businesses started to develop. One event in Lincoln's history at this time symbolized the early difficulties. A herd of 1,000 Texas longhorns collapsed the wooden bridge over Salt Creek at O Street, but the wild herd blocked local officials from locating the cattle's owner and monetary restitution for the bridge's reconstruction was never obtained.
State Capital Weathers Troubled Times
At the first meeting of the Nebraska legislature in Lincoln in 1869, immediate action was taken to authorize land grants for railroad construction and a bill was passed to establish the University of Nebraska. The Burlington & Missouri River railroad line reached Lincoln in 1870, the same year the population reached 2,500 people. One popular rumor of the time was that Lincoln was built over an underground ocean that would provide a source of saline springs with commercial potential, but nothing of this sort materialized.
In the 1870s Lincoln suffered a difficult period. The state's first governor was impeached, a depression hit the local economy, and the legality of transferring the capital was questioned. Grasshoppers infested the area for more than three years. Saloons, gambling, and prostitution flourished, prompting the formation of the Women's Christian Temperance Union, which set a moral tone that dominated local politics until Prohibition. Lincoln reversed its fortunes in the 1880s, as public services were introduced, businesses prospered, and a reform party was victorious in 1887. But as the new mayor and city council began cleaning up the local government, a crooked judge had them arrested and convicted in a circuit court case that was eventually reversed by the U.S. Supreme Court.
Twentieth Century Brings New Challenges
At the turn of the century William Jennings Bryan dominated the political life of Lincoln, running unsuccessfully for president as the Democratic candidate in 1896, 1900, and 1908. Bryan published The Commoner, a weekly newspaper with a circulation of more than 100,000 after his defeat in 1900. Bryan was an oddity—a radical Democrat in conservative Lincoln. During World War I, segments of Lincoln's German population openly supported the Central Powers. A misplaced sense of American patriotism gripped the Lincoln populace and local German culture was shunned. The University Board of Regents conducted a hearing in which 80 professors faced charges of "lack of aggressive loyalty" and three were asked to resign.
The Capitol structure built in Lincoln in the 1880s began to settle into the ground, and one corner had sunk eight inches by 1908. Serious concern for the condition of the Capitol prompted a contest to select the best new cost-effective design. All the entries except two involved the traditional federal dome style. The winning design featured a 400-foot tower that could be built around the old Capitol, saving Nebraska nearly $1 million in office rental and making it possible to defray the costs of construction by the time the new capitol was completed in 1932. Its design revolutionized public and government buildings by ushering in a modernist style.
Lincoln today is a typical "All-American" city, boasting clean, healthy air and safe streets. Answering a question about where he sees Lincoln by the year 2006, former Mayor Mike Johanns (now the state governor) declared: "Lincoln will continue to be a vibrant and healthy community with a unique sense of place. Growth will continue to occur at locations carefully chosen in the 1990s, maintaining Lincoln's interface with its agricultural hinterland. Lincoln in 2006 will still be one of the best cities in which to live in the United States."
Planning for Lincoln's Future
Current community planners have continued this vision by actively working to develop the downtown area. In 2004, a comprehensive plan was drafted by the Downtown Lincoln Association that included a civic center, hotels, and additional parking. Residents enjoy cultural amenities along with outdoor and professional sports. Meanwhile, Lincoln has been cited by Population Connection's Kid-Friendly Cities Report Card as number 17 of 80 on "Kid-Friendly Cities" 2004 list and Child magazine's "Best Cities for Families" in the twentieth position. Further, it has been featured as an economical travel destination by AAA in 2005. And with a diversified business climate, population growth, and increase in the area's workforce, it follows that Lincoln would be tenth on a Expansion Management list of "Best Places in the U.S. to Locate a Company."
Historical Information: Nebraska State Historical Society, 1500 R St., PO Box 82554, Lincoln NE 68501; telephone (402)471-3270. American Historical Society of Germans from Russia (AHSGR), 631 D St., Lincoln, NE 68502-1199; telephone (402)474-3363; fax (402)474-7229; email [email protected]
Lincoln: Education and Research
Lincoln: Education and Research
Elementary and Secondary Schools
The Lincoln Public Schools system is the second largest district in the state of Nebraska. A seven-member, non-partisan board of education selects a superintendent. Lincoln's students consistently score above the national average on standardized tests, and the system's high school graduation rate is one of the highest in the country at about 82 percent. Expansion Management magazine has ranked public education in Lincoln in the top five nationwide for quality. The first new schools to open in 35 years were two high schools, Lincoln Southwest (in 2002) and Lincoln North Star (in 2003).
The following is a summary of data regarding the Lincoln public schools as of the 2003–2004 school year.
Total enrollment: 32,120
Number of facilities
elementary schools: 36
junior high schools: 11
senior high schools: 6
Student/teacher ratio: 13.5:1
Funding per pupil: $7,568
The city is served by 30 private and parochial schools.
Public Schools Information: Lincoln Public Schools, 5901 O St., Lincoln, NE 68510; telephone (402)436-1000
Colleges and Universities
The University of Nebraska–Lincoln (UNL), with an enrollment of 22,569 students in 2004, maintains two campuses in Lincoln. Selected as fourth place overall by The Scientist on its "2004 Best Places to Work in Academia," UNL offers 140 undergraduate (with 275 programs of study) and 112 graduate programs along with operating a law school and a dental college. Two liberal arts colleges, Nebraska Wesleyan University and Union College, schedule courses leading to the baccalaureate degree. Union, which is affiliated with the Seventh-day Adventist church, enrolls more than 900 students from 42 states and 26 countries; the functioning one-room George Stone School on campus permits education majors to acquire small-class teaching experience. Founded in 1887 by Nebraskan Methodists, Wesleyan is comprised of 1,500 students and was chosen by U.S. News and World Report as the leading liberal arts college in the state of Nebraska.
Technical and vocational schools located in the Lincoln area include Southeast Community College–Lincoln Campus, and The Lincoln School of Commerce. Of historical interest, Charles Lindbergh learned to fly at the Lincoln Airplane and Flying School, though it is no longer in business.
Libraries and Research Centers
The Lincoln City Libraries system, headquartered downtown, operates seven branches and a bookmobile; it maintains holdings of about 800,000 volumes, more than 2,000 periodical titles, plus microfiche, books on tape, videos, CDs, DVDs, and CD-ROMs. Special collections feature Nebraska authors and sheet music; the library is a depository for state documents. Free Internet access is available.
Union College, Nebraska Wesleyan University, and Southeast Community College–Lincoln Campus operate campus libraries. Several federal and state agencies maintain libraries in Lincoln; among them are the National Park Service, the Nebraska Game and Parks Commission, the Nebraska Legislative Council, the Nebraska Library Commission, and the Nebraska State Historical Society. The American Historical Society of Germans from Russia, as well as hospitals, churches and synagogues, and corporations, also operate libraries in the city.
The University of Nebraska–Lincoln maintains extensive holdings in several academic libraries, including a collection of Great Plains art. It is also a center for specialized research; facilities include the Barkley Memorial Center for speech therapy and hearing impaired study, the Engine Technology Center, the Food Processing Center, and the UNL Center for Mass Spectrometry. The Nebraska Technology Development Corporation and the Nebraska Research and Development Authority provide links between research and commercial product development.
Public Library Information: Lincoln City Libraries, 136 S 14th St., Lincoln, NE 68508; telephone (402)441-8500
Newspapers and Magazines
Lincoln's daily newspaper is the Lincoln Journal Star. Several neighborhood newspapers and shopping guides are distributed weekly.
A number of special-interest magazines are based in Lincoln. The Sandhills Publishing Company publishes four national trade magazines plus Smart Computing. The Christian Record Services publishes magazines for blind adults and children and has a lending library as well. Letras Femeninas is a journal of contemporary Hispanic literature by women published two times a year in Lincoln; Prairie Schooner is a quarterly literary magazine published by the University of Nebraska. Other publications pertain to such subjects as agriculture, medicine, education, college engineering students, outdoor recreation and conservation, Nebraska history, and literature.
Television and Radio
Four television channels, including a PBS affiliate, a CBS affiliate, and an ABC affiliate, broadcast in the city, which also has cable and receives channels from nearby communities. Fourteen Lincoln AM and FM radio stations schedule a complete range of musical programming such as rock and roll, classical, country, big band, jazz, blues, and gospel. Lincoln radio listeners can also tune into a several Omaha stations.
Media Information: Lincoln Journal Star, 926 P St., Lincoln, NE 68508; telephone (402)475-4200; email [email protected]
American Historical Society of Germans from Russia. Available www.ahsgr.org
City of Lincoln Home Page. Available www.ci.lincoln.ne.us
Lincoln Arts Council. Available www.artscene.org
Lincoln Chamber of Commerce. Available lcoc.com
Lincoln City Libraries. Available www.lcl.lib.ne.us
Lincoln Convention and Visitors Bureau. Available www.lincoln.org
Lincoln Journal Star. Available www.journalstar.com
Lincoln Partnership for Economic Development. Available www.lincolnecdev.com
Lincoln Specialty Care Home Page. Available lincoln.specialtycare.org
Nebraska Economic Development Information. Available sites.nppd.com
Nebraska State Historical Society. Available www.nebraskahistory.org
State of Nebraska. Available www.nebraska.gov
Cather, Willa, O Pioneers! (Boston, New York, Houghton Mifflin, 1913)
Cather, Willa, The Song of the Lark (Boston, New York, Houghton Mifflin, 1915)
Keteyian, Armen, Big Red Confidential: Inside Nebraska Football (Chicago: Contemporary Books, 1989)
Lincoln Star Journal, A Salute to Nebraska's Tom Osborne: A 25-Year History (Sports Publishing Inc., 1998)
Neihardt, John Gneisenau, The End of the Dream and Other Stories (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1991)
Osborne, Tom, More Than Winning (Nashville: T. Nelson, 1985)
LINCOLN , town in eastern England. The medieval Jewish community (first mentioned in 1159) was probably the second in importance in England after London. During the crusader riots which swept the country in March 1190, the Jews were attacked and took refuge under the protection of the sheriff. The citizens were subsequently fined for their unruly conduct. St. Hugh, the great bishop of Lincoln, protected the Jews, who later joined their fellow townsmen in mourning his death in 1200. The most prominent Anglo-Jewish financier of the time was *Aaron of Lincoln (c. 1123–86), whose operations extended over every part of the country but were especially important in Lincolnshire. R. Joseph of Lincoln is mentioned as a scholar (c. 1125–36). In the second half of the 13th century, the outstanding Lincoln Jews were Hagin (Hayyim), son of R. *Moses b. Yom Tov of London, who was *archpresbyter of English Jewry (1258–80), and his brother *Benedict of Lincoln (d. 1276?), identical with the tosafist R. Berachiah of Nicole, who has left some significant literary remains. The latter was absolved at the time of the ritual murder accusation in 1255 associated with the name of "Little" St. *Hugh of Lincoln when 91 Lincoln Jews were sent to London for trial and 18 executed. Notwithstanding this, the community continued to be important. In 1266, during the Barons' Wars, the "Disinherited Knights" attacked the Lincoln Jewry, sacked the synagogue, and burned the records registering debts. On the expulsion of Jews from England in 1290, assets were registered of 66 householders (not all still alive), and the property which fell into the king's hands exceeded £2,500, in addition to 30 houses. Specimens of medieval Jewish architecture, including a building which was probably the synagogue, may still be seen in the former Jewry (now Steep Hill). A small Jewish community existed again in Lincoln at the beginning of the 19th century. There was a small community of evacuees during World War ii. At the outset of the 21st century, while no synagogues existed, a Lincolnshire Jewish community organization was maintained by the Progressive movement.
J.W.F. Hill, Medieval Lincoln (1948), 217–38; Davis, in: Archeological Journal, 38 (1880), 178ff.; C. Roth, in: jhset, 9 (1918–20), 28; idem, in: JJS, 1 (1948), 67–81; idem, Medieval Lincoln Jewry and its Synagogue (1934); Rosenau, in: Archeological Journal, 94 (1937), 51–56; jhset, 1 (1893–94), 89–135; 3 (1896–98), 157–86; C.W. Foster (ed.), Registrum Antiquissimum of the Cathedral Church of Lincoln, especially vol. 7 (1931).
Alan Simon Esmonde Cleary
post-RomanAfter five centuries of near-desertion Lincoln was revived by the Vikings as a river port. The Normans planted a castle and cathedral in the upper city (the Roman site); the commercial centre spread downhill, where it still is. Lincoln's heyday was the 12th and 13th cents., when it was one of the six largest English towns, with 47 parish churches and a thriving textile industry. Its importance and strategic position made it the scene of decisive civil war battles (1141, 1217) and a second coronation of Henry II (1157). It declined spectacularly in the 14th and 15th cents., a decline which grants of privileges from the crown (culminating in county status in 1409) could not avert. Lincoln revived only modestly as a social centre in the 18th cent. and as an industrial town in the 19th; it has thus been able to preserve much of its historic fabric. Jewels in Lincoln's crown include the cathedral (called by Ruskin ‘the most precious piece of architecture in the British Isles’), the only Roman gateway in Britain still used by traffic, and the only medieval bridge in Britain still lined by shops and houses.
David M. Palliser
Lincoln: Population Profile
Lincoln: Population Profile
Metropolitan Area Residents
Percent change, 1990–2000: 17.2%
U.S. rank in 1990: Not reported
U.S. rank in 2000: 144th
2003 estimate: 235,594
Percent change, 1990–2000: 17.5%
U.S. rank in 1980: 81st
U.S. rank in 1990: 81st
U.S. rank in 2000: 87th (State rank: 2nd)
Density: 3,370.7 people per square mile (2000)
Racial and ethnic characteristics (2000)
Black or African American: 6,960
American Indian and Alaska Native: 1,537
Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander: 141
Hispanic or Latino (may be of any race): 8,154
Percent of residents born in state: 66.6% (2000)
Age characteristics (2000)
Population under 5 years old: 15,199
Population 5 to 9 years old: 14,272
Population 10 to 14 years old: 13,840
Population 15 to 19 years old: 18,472
Population 20 to 24 years old: 27,110
Population 25 to 34 years old: 35,820
Population 35 to 44 years old: 33,481
Population 45 to 54 years old: 28,430
Population 55 to 59 years old: 8,832
Population 60 to 64 years old: 6,624
Population 65 to 74 years old: 11,794
Population 75 to 84 years old: 8,490
Population 85 years and over: 3,217
Median age: 31.3 years
Births (2003) Total number: 3,793
Deaths (2003) Total number: 1,591 (of which, 21 were infants under the age of 1 year)
Money income (1999)
Per capita income: $20,984
Median household income: $40,605
Total households: 90,560
Number of households with income of . . .
less than $10,000: 6,934
$10,000 to $14,999: 5,801
$15,000 to $24,999: 12,987
$25,000 to $34,999: 13,028
$35,000 to $49,999: 16,261
$50,000 to $74,999: 19,185
$75,000 to $99,999: 8,344
$100,000 to $149,999: 5,493
$150,000 to $199,999: 1,289
$200,000 or more: 1,238
Percent of families below poverty level: 5.8% (40.9% of which were female householder families with related children under 5 years)
2002 FBI Crime Index Total: 15,005
Lincoln: Geography and Climate
Lincoln: Population Profile
Lincoln: Municipal Government
Lincoln: Education and Research
Lincoln: Health Care
Lincoln: Convention Facilities
The City in Brief
Founded: 1864 (incorporated 1869)
Head Official: Mayor Coleen J. Seng (D) (since 2003)
2003 estimate: 235,594
Percent change, 1990–2000: 11.7%
U.S. rank in 1980: 81st
U.S. rank in 1990: 81st
U.S. rank in 2000: 87th
Metropolitan Area Population
Percent change, 1990–2000: 17.2%
U.S. rank in 1990: Not reported
U.S. rank in 2000: 144th
Area: 75.38 square miles (2000)
Elevation: 1,167 feet above sea level
Average Annual Temperature: 51° F
Average Annual Precipitation: 28.3 inches of rain; 26 inches of snow
Major Economic Sectors: Government, services, wholesale and retail trade, manufacturing
Unemployment Rate: 3.9% (February 2005)
Per Capita Income: $20,984 (1999)
2002 FBI Crime Index Total: 15,005
Major Colleges and Universities: University of Nebraska–Lincoln, Nebraska Wesleyan University, Union College
Daily Newspaper: Lincoln Journal Star
Lincoln (cities, United States)
Lincoln:1 City (1990 pop. 15,418), seat of Logan co., central Ill., in a farm area; inc. 1865. It is a shipping and industrial center in an agricultural area with light manufacturing. The city was platted and promoted (1853) with the aid of Abraham Lincoln and named for him when he was still an unknown country lawyer. Lincoln practiced law there from 1847 to 1859, and buildings and places associated with him have been preserved or reconstructed. A state school for the mentally retarded is in the city.
2 City (1990 pop. 191,972), state capital, and seat of Lancaster co., SE Nebr.; inc. 1869. It is the railroad, trade, and industrial center for a large grain and livestock area. Cattle are slaughtered and processed; there is printing and publishing; and beverages, construction materials, electronics, motorcycles, sports equipment, valves and cylinders, asphalt, and automotive parts are among its manufactures. A number of insurance companies have their home offices there. Founded in 1864 as Lancaster, the city was chosen as the site of the capital in 1867 and renamed. It is the seat of the Univ. of Nebraska, Union College, and Nebraska Wesleyan Univ. A planetarium, an art gallery and sculpture garden, the state historical society and its museum, and a performing arts center are in the city. The state penitentiary and several hospitals are also there. The state capitol, designed by B. G. Goodhue, with sculptures by Lee Lawrie, was completed in 1934. William Jennings Bryan lived in Lincoln from 1887 to 1916; his home is preserved.
3 Town (1990 pop. 18,045), Providence co., NE R.I.; set off from Smithfield and inc. 1871. Once a textile town, its manufactures include wire, tubing, metal parts, and thread. Limestone has been quarried there since colonial times. Many pre-Revolutionary houses and a state park are in the town.