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Miami (river, United States)

Miami (mīăm´ē, –ə) or Great Miami, river, c.160 mi (260 km) long, formed in W Ohio near Indian Lake and flowing generally SW past Dayton to the Ohio River at the Ind. line. The Miami River system has large-scale flood-control projects. The Miami and Erie Canal (c.240 mi/390 km long; opened in the 1830s) linked the upper Miami River with Lake Erie and was the principal transportation route of W Ohio until the 1850s. The Little Miami River (95 mi/152 km long) to the east and generally parallel, rises SE of Springfield and enters the Ohio River at Cincinnati.

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Dayton

Dayton City at the confluence of the Great Miami and Stillwater rivers, sw Ohio, USA. Settled in 1796, it is a commercial centre of an agricultural region. In 1995, the Dayton Peace Accord ended the war in Bosnia. Pop. (2000) 166,179.

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Dayton

Dayton, city (1990 pop. 182,044), seat of Montgomery co., SW Ohio, on the Great Miami River where it is joined by the Stillwater River; inc. 1805. It is the trade center for a fertile farm area, but is best known for its involvement with industry, invention, and aviation. Its chief products are computers; machinery; metal, paper, and rubber products; and transportation equipment. Printing and publishing are also important. Dayton grew with the extension of canals (1830s and 40s) and railroads (1850s), and with the industrial demands of the Civil War. It was the first large city to adopt (1913) the city-manager form of government (see city government). It was the home of the Wright brothers, who after their pioneering 1903 flight set up a research operation. Much of their work is preserved in the Dayton Aviation Heritage National Historical Park (see National Parks and Monuments, table). Also in the park is the home of their friend the poet Paul Laurence Dunbar. Dayton's life for decades before the 1990s was dominated by the National Cash Register company, which built many civic amenities. The city's institutions include Wright State Univ., the Univ. of Dayton, and a noted art institute. Nearby Wright-Patterson Air Force Base is a major employer.

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Dayton

Dayton

Dayton: Introduction
Dayton: Geography and Climate
Dayton: History
Dayton: Population Profile
Dayton: Municipal Government
Dayton: Economy
Dayton: Education and Research
Dayton: Health Care
Dayton: Recreation
Dayton: Convention Facilities
Dayton: Transportation
Dayton: Communications

The City in Brief

Founded: 1795 (incorporated, 1805)

Head Official: Mayor Rhine D. McLin (since 2002)

City Population

1980: 203,371

1990: 182,011

2000: 166,179

2003 estimate: 161,696

Percent change, 19902000: -8.7%

U.S. rank in 1980: 70th

U.S. rank in 1990: 89th

U.S. rank in 2000: 141st

Metropolitan Area Population

1980: 942,000

1990: 951,270

2000: 950,558

Percent change, 19902000: -0.1%

U.S. rank in 1980: 39th

U.S. rank in 1990: 51st

U.S. rank in 2000: 52nd

Area: 56.63 square miles (2000)

Elevation: 750 feet above sea level

Average Annual Temperature: 51.7° F

Average Annual Precipitation: 36.6 inches

Major Economic Sectors: Wholesale and retail trade, manufacturing, services, government, transportation

Unemployment Rate: 7.1% (March 2005)

Per Capita Income: $15, 547 (2000)

2002 FBI Crime Index Total: 15,932

Major Colleges and Universities: University of Dayton; Wright State University

Daily Newspaper: Dayton Daily News

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Dayton

DAYTON

DAYTON , city in S.W. Ohio. Dayton's Jewish population in the mid-1990s was estimated to be 5,500 and by 2005 some 5,000 in a total population of around 160,000, down from around 7,500 in 1970. Like many smaller cities in Ohio, Dayton has been losing its Jewish population as manufacturing and other job opportunities open up in the South and the West, elderly Jews leave for warmer climates, and young natives who go off to college do not return home.

The first Jews to settle in Dayton came from Germany in the 1840s. They founded the first synagogue, Bnai Jeshuran, in 1850. The synagogue joined in the formation of the Union of American Hebrew Congregations in 1873 and adopted the Reform ritual. The first B'nai B'rith chapter was established in 1864. Traditional Judaism began in the 1890s with the arrival of Jewish immigrants from Eastern Europe. They established two synagogues, Beit Abraham and Beit Jacob, based upon the traditions of their native Lithuania and Romania. They also established a Hebrew school and Zionist societies. Gradually many other benefit societies, women's organizations, and landsmanschaften developed. The first Federation of Jewish Charities was formed in 1910. In 1944 the various social welfare agencies of the Jewish community were coordinated into the Jewish Community Council, which became the local agency of the United Jewish Appeal and the central organization for the Jewish Home for the Aged, the Jewish Community Center, the Community Relations Council, and the Dayton Community Hebrew School. The marked differences between German and Eastern European Jews gradually faded and all segments of the community worked together, especially on behalf of Israel and overseas Jewry.

Members of the Dayton Jewish community have made important contributions to the cultural life of the general community. Paul Katz was the longtime director of the Dayton Philharmonic; Sidney Kusworm served as a member of President Truman's Civil Rights Commission, and as a national officer of B'nai B'rith; Robert Nathan served as an adviser to four American presidents; Miriam Rosenthal served as a planner for the University of Dayton. Temple Israel, which was an outgrowth of Bnai Jeshuran Synagogue, was at one time an outpost of classical Reform but in recent years it has moved toward Jewish tradition. A second Reform synagogue, Congregation Beth Or, was established in 1984 in Washington Township. Beth Abraham has affiliated with the Conservative movement. There were two Orthodox synagogues, Beth Jacob and a Young Israel Synagogue, which closed in the early 21st century; the latter had been attended mainly by scientists and professionals who had settled in the community. Chabad also serviced the community and there were several ḥavurot. There were several synagogues in nearby communities. In 1961 the Hillel Academy, a widely recognized progressive Jewish day school combining religious and secular studies, was established at the Conservative synagogue.

Among the community's amenities is the Jewish Community Complex. The Complex serves as the central location for the Jewish Federation of Greater Dayton and its departments: Covenant House resident care facility, the Jewish Community Relations Council, the Dayton Jewish Community Center, the Dayton Jewish Education Commission, the Dayton Jewish Observer, Jewish Family Services, United Jewish Campaign, Women's Division, and the Dayton Jewish Federation Foundation.

In 1992, the Federation opened the jcc on Far Hills Ave. In the fall of 2002, the Federation expanded its services, with the opening of the Center for Jewish Culture and Education in Centerville to meet the needs of the South Jewish community.

Through the efforts of the community's leaders, recent years have been marked by a renewed spirit of unity among Dayton's Jewish congregations. Collaborative holiday celebrations, shared education programs, Hillel Academy Jewish day school, B'Yachad supplementary high school for Jewish studies, and the new Melton Adult Mini School are part of its educational matrix.

[Jack Reimer /

Larry Skolnick (2nd ed.)]

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