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Thessaloníki (Salonica) Port on the Gulf of Thessaloníki, Greece, the country's second-largest city and capital of Greek Macedonia. Founded in c.315 bc, it flourished as the capital of Macedonia under the Romans after 148 bc. The city was part of the Ottoman Empire until 1913, when it was conquered by Greece. Industries: oil refining, textiles, metals, engineering, chemicals, cement, soap. Pop. (2001) 788,551.