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Darmstadt

Darmstadt. City in Ger. with musical tradition dating from 17th cent. Operatic activity was especially vital under Grand Duke Ludwig I (1790–1830), when the court conductor was Vogler. Later Rinck was organist for 41 years. Among 20th-cent. opera conds. at Darmstadt have been Weingartner, Balling, Böhm, E. Kleiber, Schmidt-Isserstedt, and Szell. But the most significant development has been the city's association with avant-garde contemporary mus. The International Summer Courses for New Music were instituted in 1946 by Wolfgang Steinecke, who directed them until his death in 1961. The courses were held annually up to 1970, and now every two years.

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Darmstadt

Darmstadt (därm´shtät), city (1994 pop. 139,750), Hesse, central Germany. It is a commercial, industrial, and transportation center; its manufactures include chemicals, machinery, and pharmaceuticals. Darmstadt was first mentioned in the 11th cent. and was chartered in 1330. It passed to the landgraves of Hesse in 1479. The city was severely damaged during World War II. It is the site of a technical university and the seat of the Institute for Heavy Ion Research, the European Space Operations Center, and the European Organization for Weather Satellites.

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Darmstadt

Darmstadt City in Hesse state, w central Germany. The old town dates from the Middle Ages. The city was severely damaged during World War II. It is a cultural centre, with a notable international music school. Industries: chemicals, aerospace engineering, steel. Pop. (1999) 137,600.

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Darmstadt

Darmstadt •Eurocrat • ziggurat • muskrat •theocrat • jurat • Ballarat • democrat •technocrat • bureaucrat • aristocrat •autocrat • plutocrat • babysat •Comsat • Randstad • Darmstadt •diktat • habitat • Eisenstadt •Kronstadt • cryostat • aerostat •aegrotat • rheostat • haemostat •thermostat • photostat

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Darmstadt

DARMSTADT

DARMSTADT , city in Hesse, Germany. Jews were mentioned there from the 16th century. They were subjected to the severe restriction of the Judenordnung enacted for the whole of *Hesse Jewry in 1585 and reimposed in 1629. In the 16th and 17th centuries Darmstadt Jews were compelled to attend Christian missionary sermons, like the other Hesse communities. They were granted permission to assemble for prayers only in 1695. A synagogue was erected in 1737, and the cemetery was established in 1709. The community numbered 200 persons in 1771. Its Memorbuch encompasses the years 1711 to 1863. The community flourished after the grant of civil rights to Jews.

About 2,000 Jews lived in Darmstadt in 1913, and 3,000 in 1933, many of them immigrants from Eastern Europe. A new synagogue was built in 1876. However, the local Orthodox members seceded and in 1906 founded an independent community and synagogue, which totaled approximately 110 families in 1925. The Orientalist Julius Landsberger served as rabbi of Darmstadt at the end of the 19th century. The last noted rabbi of the Reform community of the city was the scholar Bruno *Italiener. The poet Karl *Wolfskehl, the literary historian Friedrich *Gundolf, and the architect Alfred *Messel were all born in Darmstadt. Emigration after Hitler's rise to power reduced the community to fewer than 700 by August 1938. On Nov. 10, 1938, both the main synagogue, with its 30 Torah scrolls, and the Orthodox one were burned down. The remaining Jews were deported starting in December 1940. There were 70 Jews living in the city and 30 in the district in 1967. A new synagogue was inaugurated in 1988, when there were 116 community members. Due to the immigration of Jews from the former Soviet Union, their number rose to 670 in 2003.

bibliography:

Lebermann, in: jjlg, 20 (1929), 181–252; A. Mueller, Zur Geschichte der Judenfrage in den rechtsrheinischen Besitzungen der Landgrafschaft Hessen-Darmstadt in 16., 17. und 18. Jahrhundert… (1937); Darmstaedter israelitischer Kalender… (1939); B. Postal and S.H. Abramson, Landmarks of a People… (1962); H.W. Sabais (ed.), Vom Geist einer Stadt… (1956); fjw (1932–33), 378–9. add. bibliography: E.G. Franz, Juden als Darmstaedter Buerger (1984); B. Szklanowski, Bet ha-Ḥayyim. Der juedische Friedhof in Darmstadt (1988); R. Dreesen, Darmstadt als Deportationsort (2004).

[Edmund Meir /

Stefan Rohrbacher (2nd ed.)]

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