BRUNSWICK (Ger. Braunschweig ), city and former duchy in Germany. Jews were living in the duchy at the beginning of the 12th century, and in 1137 the emperor gave jurisdiction over them to the duke. The only specific information concerning the Jews living in the duchy before the *Black Death relates to Blankenburg (1223) and Helmstedt (1247), apart from the capital city where a community was established at the end of the 13th century. Both the dukes and the municipality gave the Jews protection and levied taxes. Their economic conditions and legal status were favorable, and Jews from other places in northern Germany moved there. At the beginning of the 14th century the Jews in the capital lived in a street near the market and ducal castle. By the middle of the century they numbered approximately 150. Over half were massacred during the Black Death (1348–49). In 1364 jurisdiction over the Jews passed entirely to the municipality. Jews from Goslar were permitted to settle in Brunswick in 1417. The Jews in the city of Brunswick were accused of desecrating the *Host in 1510, and 16 were expelled. Anti-Jewish riots occurred in 1543, provoked by the polemical writings of Martin Luther, and in 1571 the Jews were expelled from the duchy. The emperor procured their return seven years later, but the decree of expulsion was renewed in 1590. This time the imperial representations were of no avail and the Jews were compelled to leave.
Several Jews were permitted to settle in the duchy at the beginning of the 17th century. Duke Charles William Ferdinand (1780–1806), whom Israel *Jacobson served as *Court Jew, corresponded with Moses *Mendelssohn on philosophical and religious subjects; he invited Mendelssohn for a visit and encouraged him to write his Morgenstunden. In 1805 the duke abrogated the Leibzoll ("body tax") hitherto levied on Jews. The school Jacobson founded in Seesen in 1801, the first to educate children in the spirit of *Haskalah, was opened under ducal patronage. A second "progressive" school, the Samson school, was opened in *Wolfenbuettel in 1807; I.M. *Jost and Leopold *Zunz were among its pupils. Between 1807 and 1813 Brunswick formed part of the Napoleonic kingdom of Westphalia, and the Jews were granted civic equality. After the downfall of Napoleon in 1814, when the kingdom was abolished, the Jews were again disqualified from holding public office and deprived of the franchise. They acquired the franchise and elective rights in 1832. The "Jewish oath" was abolished in 1845. In 1848 mixed marriages were legalized and Jews were allowed to acquire real property. The civil service remained closed to Jews until 1919. A synagogue was built in the city of Brunswick about 1780 and another in 1784. The Brunswick community adopted *Reform Judaism at the beginning of the 19th century. The rabbi of Brunswick, Levi *Herzfeld (1842–84), convened the first *synod of German rabbis there in 1844. The community in Brunswick numbered 378 in 1812, 258 in 1852 (0.3% of the total), and 1,750 in 1928. However, by 1933 the number had decreased to 980, since the city had become a stronghold of Nazism. On Kristallnacht (Nov. 9–10, 1938), with 620 Jews remaining in the city after further flight and emigration, the synagogue was burned down and Jewish stores were demolished. Another 200 managed to flee up to 1941. The rest were deported to the east in 14 transports up to the end of the war; in all, 377 local Jews perished in the Holocaust. A concentration camp was established in Brunswick; there were a number of Jews in it at the end of World War ii. There were 43 Jews living in the city of Brunswick in 1967.
Germ Jud, 1 (1963), 503; 2 (1968), 87, 108–24, 351; Brunsvicensia Judaica (1966; Braunschweiger Werkstuecke, no. 35); H. Schnee, Die Hoffinanz und der moderne Staat, 2 (1954), 86–109; A. Lewinsky, in: mgwj, 51 (1907), 214–23; Fischer, in: zgjd, 8 (1937), 53–64. add. bibliography: R. Busch, Der ehemaligen juedischen Gemeinde Braunschweigs zum Gedenken (1977); H.-H. Ebeling, Die Juden in Braunschweig (1987); 'Kristallnacht' und Antisemitismus im Braunschweiger Land (1988).
[Zvi Avneri /
Ze'ev Wilhem Falk]
Brunswick (cities, United States)
Brunswick:1 City (1990 pop. 16,433), seat of Glynn co., SE Ga., on St. Simon's Sound near the Atlantic coast; laid out 1771–72, inc. 1856. It is a port of entry with numerous container docks. Its sheltered harbor is used by coastal freighters and fishing and shrimping fleets, and there is an ocean terminal for shipping radioactive waste. The gateway to offshore resort islands (see Sea Islands), Brunswick has a large seafood-processing industry and manufactures pulp and paper. 2 Town (1990 pop. 20,906), Cumberland co., S Maine, on the Androscoggin River and Casco Bay, in a resort area; settled as a trading post in 1628, inc. 1738. It is a growing commercial center for S Maine; products include shoes and clothing. Bowdoin College (1794) and a U.S. naval air station are in Brunswick. Nathaniel Hawthorne and Henry Wadsworth Longfellow were students at Bowdoin College during the 1820s. Longfellow later taught there; a house dating from 1808 was once his home. Hawthorne's first novel, Fanshawe (1828) was printed in the town. In 1851, Harriet Beecher Stowe wrote Uncle Tom's Cabin there; her house is a national landmark. After the Civil War, textiles became Brunswick's chief industry, but the mill closed in 1955. 3 City (1990 pop. 28,230), Medina co., N Ohio, a suburb of Cleveland; settled 1815 as part of the Connecticut Western Reserve, inc. 1960. A small farm community for many years, its population burgeoned after World War II. It has light industrial plants.
Brunswick (former state, Germany)
Brunswick (brŭnz´wĬk), Ger. Braunschweig (broun´shfīk), former state, central Germany, surrounded by the former Prussian provinces of Saxony, Hanover, and Westphalia. The region of Braunschweig is situated on the North German plain and in the northern foothills of the Harz Mts. The land is drained by the Leine and Oker rivers. The duchy of Braunschweig emerged (13th cent.) from the remnants of the domains of Henry the Lion, the duke of Saxony, to whom Emperor Frederick I had left only the territories of Braunschweig and Lüneburg (roughly modern Braunschweig and Hanover). Because the Guelphic house divided frequently, it remained somewhat separated from the German political scene. The duchy was incorporated into the kingdom of Westphalia in 1807 and recovered by Duke Frederick William (1771–1815) in 1813. The line became extinct in 1884, and Braunschweig was ruled by regents until 1913, when Ernest Augustus of Cumberland, grandson of King George V of Hanover, was made duke. A member of the North German Confederation from 1866 and of the German Empire from 1871, Braunschweig became a republic in 1918 and then joined the Weimar Republic. In 1946 it was included (except for several small territories placed in East Germany) in the West German state of Lower Saxony. Braunschweig (the former capital), Goslar, Helmstedt, and Wolfenbüttel were the chief towns.
Brunswick (city, Germany)
Brunswick or Braunschweig (broun´shvīk), city (1994 pop. 256,270), Lower Saxony, central Germany, on the Oker River. It is an industrial and commercial center; its major industry is metalworking. Other manufactures include pianos, electronic equipment, food products, and printed materials. Reputedly founded c.861 and chartered in the 12th cent., Braunschweig became (13th cent.) a prominent member of the Hanseatic League. In 1753 the residence of the dukes of Braunschweig was shifted there from Wolfenbüttel. In 1830 the duke was deposed and the city became a self-governing municipality. The city has a 12th-century Romanesque cathedral, which contains the tombs of Henry the Lion (d. 1195) and Emperor Otto IV (d. 1218); several Gothic churches; and a famous fountain representing Till Eulenspiegel, the legendary prankster. The city is the site of a technical university (the oldest in Germany) and an art museum. The philosopher and dramatist Gotthold Lessing (1729–81) is buried in Brunswick.