Novgorod City in nw Russia, on the River Volchov. It was supposedly founded by the Varangian Prince Rurik in the 9th century. Its inhabitants were forcibly converted to Christianity in 989. It subsequently became capital of a vast territory. After a long fight for supremacy, the city was forced to submit to Moscow in 1478. In 1570, Ivan IV (the Terrible) massacred the inhabitants. It declined in importance after the founding of St Petersburg. During World War II it suffered great destruction. Industries: distilling, foodstuffs, electrical engineering, furniture, chinaware. Pop. (1994 est.) 239,700.
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