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Kabardino-Balkaria Republic of the Russian Federation in the n Caucasus Mountains; the capital is Nalchik. Annexed to Russia in 1827, constituted as a republic of the Soviet Union in 1936, it became a federal republic of Russia in 1991. The population consists of Muslim Kabardinos (48%), Russians (32%), and Turkic-speaking Balkars (10%). Industries: ore-mining, timber. Pop. (2000 est.) 791,600.