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Grenoble

Grenoble (grənô´blə), city (1990 pop. 153,973), capital of Isère dept., SE France, at the foot of the Alps on the Isère River at the confluence of Drac River. It is the hydroelectric center of France and has an important nuclear-research center. Metals, electrical equipment, chemicals, and food products are the chief manufactures. An ancient city of the Allobroges and a Roman city, Grenoble came under the Burgundians (5th cent.), the Franks (6th cent.), and the kingdom of Provence (9th–11th cent.). When that kingdom broke up, Grenoble became a possession of the dauphins of Viennois; Dauphiné along with its capital, Grenoble, passed to the French crown in 1349. The parlement of Grenoble was strongly anti-Royalist during the French Revolution. In Grenoble are a famous university (founded 1339); the Cathedral of Notre Dame (12–13th cent.); the Church of St. André (13th–14th cent.), which contains the tomb of the military hero Pierre Bayard; the Renaissance palace of the dauphins (now the courthouse); and an art museum. Another museum is devoted to Stendhal, who was born in Grenoble. Near the city is the Grande Chartreuse, a monastery founded in 1084. Grenoble is a noted tourist and skiing center and was the site of the 1968 winter Olympics.

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Grenoble

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Grenoble

GRENOBLE

GRENOBLE , capital of the Isère department, France, formerly capital of Dauphiné. A lamentation on the martyrdom of ten Jews from Grenoble was incorporated in the Bourguignon maḥzor in the second half of the 13th century. After the Jews were expelled from France in 1306, Dauphin Humbert i allowed a number of them to settle in Grenoble, offering them relatively favorable privileges. However, at the time of the *Black Death in 1348, 74 Jews were arrested and, after a trial lasting three months, were burned at the stake. After the general expulsion of Jews from France in 1394, there were no Jews living in Grenoble until after the Revolution. In 1717, a group from Comtat Venaissin attempted to settle there, but the city parlement drove them out. A new community was formed after the Revolution. The arrival of Jews from Alsace in 1874 significantly increased the size and importance of the Grenoble community.

Holocaust and Postwar Periods

During World War ii, Grenoble was first occupied by the Italians, and then later by the Germans. It was an important center for various forms of Jewish resistance, including armed struggle, the rescue of children, and the hiding and "camouflage" of adults. The *Gestapo became especially active in the area from 1943 on, arresting, torturing, and deporting hundreds of Jews and members of the Resistance. Marc Haguenau (for whom a Jewish group of the French underground was named) was tortured and killed in Grenoble. Léonce Bernheim, a noted Zionist leader, and his wife were arrested in the vicinity of Grenoble. In 1943 at a secret meeting in the city, Isaac *Schneersohn helped lay the groundwork for the creation of the *Centre de Documentation Juive Contemporaine to collect material on the Nazi genocide. After the war, many refugees stayed in Grenoble, and by 1960 the Jewish population numbered over 1,000. Beginning in 1962, the Jewish population increased rapidly, thanks to the influx of immigrants from North Africa. By the late 1960s, it numbered 5,000; by 1971, it had reached about 8,000, but by the turn of the century it had dropped to somewhat less than 7,000. The community has both an Ashkenazi and a Sephardi synagogue, and maintains a range of institutions, including kosher butchers, a talmud torah, various youth groups, and a community center. A Jewish radio station, Kol Hachalom (Voice of Peace), has been in operation in Grenoble since 1983.

bibliography:

Gross, Gal Jud (1897), 143; Ḥ. Schirmann, in: Zion, 19 (1954), 66; Z. Szajkowski, Franco-Judaica (1962), no. 310; idem, Analytical Franco-Jewish Gazetteer (1966), 205–9; A. Prudhomme, Histoire de Grenoble (1888), 138ff., 198. add. bibliography: Guide juif de France (1971), 150.

[Georges Levitte /

David Weinberg (2nd ed.)]

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