Kyōto. Japanese city, of particular importance for its Buddhist temples and monasteries. Virtually every school and sect in Buddhism had or has its location in Kyōto. Of particular early importance are the Hosso (Dōshō) temple Kiyomizu, with its elaborate scaffolding construction (to throw oneself from the scaffold of Kiyomizu is to launch oneself into the unknown), and the Byōdō-in, temple of equality, the ‘Phoenix Hall’ of which survived the fire in 1483 which destroyed all else; it was beautifully restored in 1957. The arrival of Zen brought back the simpler style of a single axis leading from a southern entrance, through the triple gate (sammon), the buddha-hall (butsuden), to the dharma-hall (hatto). Among the earliest are Nanzenji (13th cent., see MUKAN FUMON), and the smaller, but related Eikan-do. Of equal importance is Daitoku-ji, whose original 14th-cent. buildings burned down in the 15th cent., but which remains a classic example of a Zen monastery. Pure Land temples are also prominent in Kyōto, especially Chion-in of Jodo-shu, and Honganji where Shinran was buried. Also at Kyōto is the famous rock garden at the Ryoanji temple, fifteen rocks so placed in groups of seven, five, and three, that from any aspect, one rock is hidden.
Kyōto City on w central Honshū Island, Japan; capital of Kyōto prefecture. Founded in the 6th century, it was the capital of Japan for more than 1,000 years. Industries: porcelain, lacquerware, textiles, precision tools. Pop. (1993) 1,395,000.
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