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Liaoning

Liaoning Coastal province in ne China, bordering North Korea; the capital is Shenyang. Japan conquered the Liaotung peninsula during the Russo-Japanese War (1904–05) and developed the province's industries and railroads. It later formed part of the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo (1932–45). After World War II, it fell under the joint control of Russia and China. A Chinese province since 1955. it is the chief site of China's heavy industry. The province has rich coal and iron ore reserves, and supplies 20% of China's electrical power. It includes the cities of Anshan, Fushun, and Dalian (China's major port). The principal river is the Liao. Area: 151,000sq km (58,300sq mi). Pop. (2000) 42,380,000.

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Anshan

Anshan (än´shän´), city (1994 est. pop. 1,251,700), central Liaoning prov., China, on a branch of the South Liaoning RR. Its huge integrated iron and steel complex is the largest in China. It comprises iron and coal mines and numerous blast furnaces, open hearths, and finishing facilities. Many varieties of steel and steel products (including rails and cables) are produced. Other manufactures in Anshan include chemicals, tractors, refined oil, machinery, cement, and paper. Anshan was developed as a metallurgical center largely by the Japanese, who occupied the region during World War II. The Soviet Union dismantled much of the steel mill between 1944 and 1946, but by 1956 the facilities had been rebuilt.

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Anshan

Anshan •sampan • tarpan •bedpan, deadpan •skidpan • inspan • wingspan •marzipan •frypan, taipan •lifespan • Chopin • saltpan • outspan •dustpan • tragopan • Perrin •trimaran • catamaran • Poussin •Anshan • gratin • kaftan • suntan •Chambertin • orang-utan • minivan •Ativan • caravan • banyan

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Liaoning

Liaoning (lyou´nĬng´), province (2010 pop. 43,746,323), c.58,400 sq mi (151,295 sq km), NE China, on the Bohai and Korea Bay. The capital is Shenyang (Mukden). A part of Manchuria, it encompasses the Liaodong peninsula and the plain of the Liao River. The Liao River is navigable in its lower reaches, and an extensive rail net, including sections of the South Manchuria RR, connects the interior with the ports along the coast. Rainfall is adequate, but long, severe winters permit only one harvest annually. Soybeans are the major crop, and millet, sorghum, wheat, rice, sweet potatoes, beans, cotton, tobacco, fruit, and oakleaf silk (pongee silk) are also produced. Along the coast, salt production and fishing are important.

Liaoning is China's largest producer of heavy industrial products, and it supplies one fifth of China's electrical power. It is a major coal-producing area and contains a large percentage of China's iron ore reserves; there are large deposits of oil and magnesite and smaller ones of copper, lead, zinc, and molybdenum. Shenyang is the center of a vast heavy-industrial complex (metallurgy, machinery, chemicals, petroleum, and coal) that also embraces Anshan, a major city for iron and steel; Fushun, a coal and a shale oil producing center; and Dalian, the chief commercial port of Manchuria. Important manufactures include locomotives, tractors, and a wide range of heavy equipment. Liaoning is also a leading producer of machine-made paper, and it has numerous brick and tile factories that utilize waste ash and slag. Textiles and foodstuffs are also produced. In the late 20th cent. the huge state industries became increasingly uneconomical, and the province was the scene of labor unrest as workers went unpaid or were laid off and factories closed. The Supung Dam on the Yalu River, built by the Japanese, supplies power to Liaoning and North Korea.

Liaoning's fine harbors were long coveted by Russia and Japan for their strategic positions. Japan acquired (1895) the Liaodong peninsula after the first Sino-Japanese War, but was forced by Russia, Germany, and France to return it to China that same year. In 1898, Russia received the southern portion of the Liaodong peninsula as a 25-year leasehold. After the Russo-Japanese War (1904–5), Japan took this territory (which it called Kwantung). The growth of railroads after 1900 spurred the development of the province; the Japanese concentrated heavy industry there, especially after 1931. After World War II, an area approximately the same as Kwantung was made the Port Arthur Naval Base District, under joint Soviet and Chinese operation. The district, which is now the city of Dalian and includes the port of Lüshun (Port Arthur), has been under sole Chinese administration since 1955. The eastern part of what was Rehe prov. became part of Liaoning in 1956, and in 1970 more than 30,000 sq mi (77,700 sq km) of territory from the Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region were added to Liaoning in the west. This territory was returned to Inner Mongolia in 1979.

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