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Durban

Durban (dûr´bən), city, now part and seat of eThekwini metropolitan municipality, KwaZulu-Natal prov., E South Africa, on Natal Bay, an arm of the Indian Ocean. Durban is an industrial center, a major seaport, and a year-round resort. Industries include sugar refining, shipbuilding and ship repairing, petroleum refining, fishing, automobile assembly, and the manufacture of food products, paint, chemicals, fertilizers, soap, footwear, and textiles. Sugarcane is grown on nearby estates. Durban is the main port for the Witwatersrand and is connected by railroad with Johannesburg and other cities on the Rand. Its main exports are manganese and other ores, coal, sugar, and corn. Corporate parks abound in its suburbs and Durban International Airport is nearby. Persons of Indian and Pakistani descent make up c.40% of the population.

The site of Durban was visited in 1497 by Vasco da Gama, who named it Rio de Natal; British colonization began in 1824. The city, first called Port Natal by the British, was renamed Durban in 1835 after Sir Benjamin D'Urban, then governor of Cape Colony. In 1842, Boers (Afrikaners) besieged British troops in the Old Fort (now a museum) there. Gold was discovered in Johannesburg in the 1880s, and Durban became the chief commercial city of Natal and a major port after 1887, when the bay was dredged. The city was the site of the national convention (1908–9) that paved the way for the creation in 1910 of the Union of South Africa. Durban is the seat of the Univ. of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, and the Durban Univ. of Technology. Also there are the Durban Museum and Art Gallery, the Old Courthouse and Kwa Muhle museums, an aquarium, Greyville Race Course, and the botanical gardens in the hilltop suburb of Berea.

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Durban

Durban Seaport on the n shore of Durban Bay, South Africa. Founded in 1835, the national convention initiating the Union of South Africa was held here. The University of Natal (1949) and Natal University College (1960) are here. Industries: shipbuilding, oil refining, and chemicals. Pop. (1996) 2,117,700.

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Durban

DurbanBrian, cyan, Gaian, Geminian, Hawaiian, ion, iron, Ixion, lion, Lyon, Mayan, Narayan, O'Brien, Orion, Paraguayan, prion, Ryan, scion, Uruguayan, Zion •andiron •gridiron, midiron •dandelion • anion • Bruneian •cation, flatiron •gowan, Palawan, rowen •anthozoan, bryozoan, Goan, hydrozoan, Minoan, protozoan, protozoon, rowan, Samoan, spermatozoon •Ohioan • Chicagoan • Virgoan •Idahoan •doyen, Illinoisan, IroquoianEwan, Labuan, McEwan, McLuhan, Siouan •Saskatchewan • Papuan • Paduan •Nicaraguan • gargantuan •carbon, chlorofluorocarbon, graben, hydrocarbon, Laban, radiocarbon •ebon • Melbourne • Theban •gibbon, ribbon •Brisbane, Lisbon •Tyburn •auburn, Bourbon •Alban • Manitoban • Cuban •stubborn •Durban, exurban, suburban, turban, urban

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Durban

DURBAN

DURBAN , port in KwaZulu-Natal, third largest city in the Republic of South Africa. The relatively small Jewish population has always played a prominent part in the life of the city. One of the founders of Port Natal (Durban's original name) was Nathaniel *Isaacs, who came as a youth in 1825. Important contributions to the port's early development were made by Jonas *Bergtheil and by Daniel de *Pass. The first berit milah in Natal, for the son of a former Durban resident D.M. Kisch, was performed in 1876 by the Rev. S. Rapaport, who came from Port Elizabeth for the ceremony. In 1880 a Jewish burial ground was laid out. Three years later a congregation was formed and in 1884 a building which had been a Methodist chapel was converted into a synagogue, with Bernard Lipinski (d. 1907) as the first president. Outstanding services were rendered by Felix C. Hollander (1876–1955), who was mayor of Durban (1910–13), a member of the Natal provincial executive committee (1914–23 and 1926–39), a senator (1939–48), and the head of the Jewish community. Charles Phineas Robinson (d. 1938) was a member of the Natal legislature and later of the Union parliament. His son Albert also sat in parliament and later became London high commissioner for the Central African Federation. Other leading communal personalities were Philip Wartski (1853–1948) and Solomon Moshal (1894–1986).

Less affected by Eastern European immigration than other communities of the Republic, Durban Jewry has at the same time an active communal life. There are four synagogues (one Reform) and the usual fraternal and welfare organizations. Diminishing numbers, however, led to the closure of the city's Jewish day school, Carmel College, in 1997. The Durban Jewish Club, the only institution of its kind in the Republic, has played a major role in the community's development. The Council for KwaZulu-Natal Jewry is a coordinating body and also functions as the provincial office of the South African Jewish Board of Deputies. Zionist activity is directed by the KwaZulu-Natal Zionist Council. The Jewish population of Durban in 2004 was 2,750.

bibliography:

G. Saron and L. Hotz, Jews in South Africa (1955), index; South African Jewish Year Book (1929), 107–10; M. Gitlin, The Vision Amazing (1950), index.

[Louis Hotz /

Gustav Saron]

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