British Somaliland. Former British protectorate near the mouth of the Red Sea. In 1884, during the 19th-cent. partition of Africa by European powers, Britain declared a protectorate over the part of Somali territory lying strategically opposite its important naval base in Aden. The country's natural resources were poor and development was hampered by a rebellion against British administration in the north from 1899 to 1920. In the Second World War British troops occupied the neighbouring Somali territory, previously controlled by Italy, and in 1960 the two former dependencies were united to create the independent state of Somalia.
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