Skip to main content
Select Source:

Ritsu

Ritsu (Jap.; Skt., vināya). Codes of discipline which govern the Buddhist monastic life. The vinaya were compiled about 100 years after Śākyamuni Buddha's death and transmitted orally until they were put down in writing in the 1st cent. BCE, forming the Vinaya-piṭaka of the Tripiṭaka. The version that prevailed in E. Asia was the Ssu-fen lü (Vinaya in Four Parts), translated into Chinese between 410 and 412 by Buddhayaśas (no Sanskrit original or Tibetan translation exists). There were several other vinaya texts translated and utilized, all of Hīnayāna origin, but the Ssu-fen lü became standard, and became the basis of the Ritsu school in Japan, one of the six schools of the Nara period, based on Lu-tsung (see BUDDHISM IN CHINA), and introduced by Ganjin. When the compound, kai-ritsu is used, ritsu (vinaya) refers to an objective code of disciplines, and kai (śīla) denotes precepts to be undertaken voluntarily, such as the Five Precepts. Thus monks and nuns observe both kai-ritsu, whereas lay believers take on only the kai. Two main schools survive: Ritsu, whose centre is the Tōshōdaiji; and Shingon-ritsu, whose centre is the Saidaiji.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Ritsu." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. . Encyclopedia.com. 20 May. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Ritsu." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. . Encyclopedia.com. (May 20, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/ritsu

"Ritsu." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. . Retrieved May 20, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/ritsu

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

Ritsu

Ritsu and ryō. The written criminal and civil codes that were the foundation for the imperial bureaucracy of Japan from the early 7th to the 12th cents.

The ritsu were essentially disciplinary sanctions of a penal character. The ryō were prescriptive regulations for the organization of governmental administration. A distinctive feature of the Japanese bureaucracy, however, was the establishment of a second branch with prestige superior to that of the Department of State. This was the Jingikan or ‘Department of Shinto’ with jurisdiction over the cult of the national gods (kami). The ritsu-ryō government dissolved in the 12th cent., being replaced by shogun military rule.

In Japanese music, ritsu and ryō are scales drawn from Buddhist chant.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Ritsu." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. . Encyclopedia.com. 20 May. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Ritsu." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. . Encyclopedia.com. (May 20, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/ritsu-0

"Ritsu." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. . Retrieved May 20, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/ritsu-0

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.