Trump, Donald 1946–
Chairman, president, and chief executive officer, Trump Organization
Education: University of Pennsylvania, BA, 1968.
Family: Son of Frederick C. Trump (real estate developer and builder, self-made millionaire) and Mary (MacLeod) Trump (homemaker who raised five children); married Ivana Zelnickova Winkimayr (a New York fashion model), 1977 (divorced 1991); children: three; married Marla Maples (an actress), 1993 (divorced June 1999); children: one.
Career: Trump Organization, president, chairman, and CEO, 1975–.
Awards: Entrepreneur of the Year, Wharton Entrepreneurial Club, 1984; Ellis Island Medal of Honor, 1986; Developer of the Year, Construction Management Association of America, 1999; Hotel and Real Visionary of the Century, UTA Federation, 2000.
Publications: Trump: The Art of the Deal (with Tony Schwartz), 1987; Trump: Surviving at the Top (with Charles Leerhsen), 1990; Trump: The Art of the Comeback (with Kate Bohner), 1997; The America We Deserve (with Dave Shiflett), 2000.
Address: Trump Organization, 725 Fifth Avenue, New York, New York 10022-2519; http://www.trump.com.
■ By the early 2000s the American real estate development and construction businessman Donald John Trump had designed a billion-dollar empire with his name branded on luxury properties to identify them as international symbols of wealth and privilege. Trump even summoned a court to protect his surname from being used by anyone else in connection with real estate. He built his empire in a big way, making his name synonymous with the hustle, money, and glamour of New York City and other U.S. locations.
LEARNED FROM HIS FATHER
Trump learned his deal-making and entrepreneurial skills from his father, Frederick, who was forced at eleven years of age—upon his father's death—to run the family business. acquired the ability to recognize good deals when he constructed and operated 24,000 affordable housing units in Brooklyn, Queens, and Staten Island.
As a child, Trump assisted his father with the rental property business; at age five he was taken along to inspect building sites, and at thirteen he drove a bulldozer. Even at this early stage, Trump was described as self-assured, determined, and positive. He was strongly influenced by his father in his decision to make a career in real estate, but he envisioned buying and selling rather than collecting rents. He learned showman-ship and how to advertise himself from his mother, Mary, who liked to be in the center of the spotlight.
GROWING UP TRUMP
Trump spent his high school years at the New York Military Academy, where his energetic aggression and competitiveness were encouraged. He performed well academically and socially, but he never formed close relationships because his drive to win repelled friendships. After graduating in 1964, Trump entered Fordham University, where he learned a valuable lesson. With his father he attended the opening ceremonies for the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge, which connects Brooklyn and Staten Island, and noticed that the bridge's designer was not being honored. In Gwenda Blair's biography, Trump is quoted as saying: "I realized then and there, that if you let people treat you how they want, you'll be made a fool. I realized then and there something I would never forget: I don't want to be made anybody's sucker."
Trump left Fordham to study at the University of Pennsylvania's Wharton School of Finance because it possessed one of the country's few real estate departments. He studied accounting, finance, money and banking, and mortgages while working with his father during the summers. He learned construction details and paid close attention to detail, even noticing that his father kept busy with paperwork while on coffee breaks. The Trump family soon realized that Fred and Donald were happiest when they were talking real estate.
Upon graduation (with a degree in economics) in 1968, Trump joined his father's company, with a clear view of what he wanted to do: develop real estate in the biggest way possible. He persuaded his father to expand the company's holdings by taking loans against their equity, which then stood at $200 million. Trump became president in 1975 and changed the company's name to Trump Organization. The climate in Queens was competitive, and profit margins were narrow, so Trump decided that he could make more money in elegant Manhattan.
Without much money, Trump was still able in 1971 to use his negotiating skills to join an exclusive social club. He was introduced to many influential people and leaped at the opportunities given to him. Trump convinced himself that his wealthy Manhattan clientele would provide him with both money and power. Trump entered the stagnant Manhattan real estate market in 1974 after becoming interested in large, attractively designed buildings. When the Pennsylvania Central railroad entered bankruptcy, Trump quickly learned to outmaneuver the opposition, obtaining the option on Grand Central Terminal, abutting the unprofitable Commodore Hotel. The 1975 deal included the dilapidated 119-acre railroad yards located on the west side of Manhattan along the Hudson River from West 30th Street to West 39 Street and West 59th Street to West 72nd Street. Although his initial plans to build apartments proved to be economically unfeasible, Trump promoted the location for a convention center. Trump was responsible for the designation and construction of the complex, subsequently named for Senator Jacob Javits.
During his early wheeler-dealer days, Trump learned well how to combine his father's political connections, his advisers' wisdom, and his growing knowledge of real estate development. Trump made up his mind, delved totally into a project, acted like a salesman, and never doubted himself. In addition, it was common for Trump to work out no formal business plan or development strategy for new projects, storing ideas and preliminary calculations in his head. He also viciously controlled his employees, so that those who stayed the longest learned not to argue with him.
SEEING OPPORTUNITIES EVERYWHERE
One of Trump's strengths was recognizing opportunity where others saw nothing. Trump looked past the bleak Commodore Hotel and realized that many wealthy people passed by it every day. To everybody except Trump, the redevelopment seemed impossible. Nevertheless, he purchased the hotel from Penn Central for $10 million and began negotiating his first big deal. Regarding the excellent location next to Grand Central Station, Trump and Hyatt Hotel brokered a deal with the city, which included critically needed and brilliantly secured 40-year tax abatements.
Trump arranged financing and completely renovated the exterior of the Grand Central Terminal and the entire hotel. The Commodore, renamed the Grand Hyatt Hotel, opened in 1980, by which time Trump was regarded as the city's best-known developer. But Trump was far from satisfied. He wanted to create unique buildings that people would talk about and admire, and he wanted to place his name on these buildings. In 1979 Trump leased a site on Fifth Avenue adjacent to Tiffany's on which to build a $200 million apartment-retail complex. In 1982 Trump's world-renowned 58-story skyscraper, Trump Tower, was finished. When the building attracted well-known retail stores and celebrity renters, Trump received national acclaim.
After legalized gambling arrived to New Jersey in 1977, Trump investigated the lucrative casino business. He began buying up properties in Atlantic City in 1980, a complex project that involved acquiring land, winning gambling licenses, and obtaining permits and financing. Trump attended regulatory hearings and hired local attorneys to ensure the success of his ventures. Holiday Inn, the parent of Harrah's casino hotels, agreed to be a partner in the $250 million developmental complex, which opened in 1982 as Harrah's at Trump Plaza. In 1986 Trump bought out Holiday Inn and renamed it Trump Plaza Hotel and Casino. When Hilton Hotels failed to obtain a gambling license, Trump purchased the Hilton Hotels casino-hotel and renamed the $320 million complex Trump's Castle. Trump acquired the Taj Mahal, which at the time of its opening in 1990 was the world's largest hotel-casino.
Concurrently, Trump bought a 37-story apartment building and the adjacent Barbizon-Plaza Hotel, which overlooked Central Park. Unable to tear down the building due to tenant opposition, Trump changed direction and renovated the Barbizon into luxury residential buildings, renaming it Trump Parc. In 1988 Trump acquired the 37-story Plaza Hotel, at 59th Street and Fifth Avenue, for $407 million and spent $50 million refurbishing it. The Plaza's grandeur gave Trump added prestige.
GOING AGAINST THE BUSINESS NORM
Competition was fierce during these developments. Even though Trump had studied business in college, he often went against basic economic principles when pursuing deals. One principle, for instance, is to lower prices with extreme competition. However, when competitors lowered prices to outmaneuver him, Trump saw through his clientele's psychology and instead raised prices, believing that the wealthy would pay for luxury.
CHALLENGED WITH BANKRUPTCY
At his peak in the late 1980s Trump's estimated $1 billion empire was one of the world's most powerful real estate organizations, and Trump was well known worldwide as a rich entrepreneur who found, bought, and turned around losing properties. He was known in Manhattan as one of the world's most controversial builders, often called "the P. T. Barnum of Finance." In 1990 Trump drew up plans in Los Angeles for building a $1 billion commercial and residential project featuring a 125-story office building. Despite his experiences at making deals and recognizing good investments, however, Trump could not counter a downward real estate market. Trump faced bankruptcy when he was unable to make massive loan payments of over $2 billion. He had regularly convinced financial institutions that his name raised the worth of his assets, so they could ignore their usual lending and collateral guidelines. At that point, however, the market was contracting, and banks were not eager to agree to his demands and invest in what was then considered risky.
Trump lost control of some of his real estate to creditor banks and was forced to trade part of his empire to restructure debts. Although he secured emergency financing, his worth was reduced from an estimated $1.7 billion to $500 million. Perhaps worse, Trump's expertise was questioned. Trump found this uncertain period a challenge. Although disaster loomed, the skillful wheeler-dealer had his talents, experiences, personality, and name, and they were still valued. Trump remained optimistic as he secured favorable loan terms, renegotiated bond obligations, and sold his most unprofitable holdings.
MANAGEMENT STYLE THAT WORKED A COMEBACK
Even though his empire was crumbling, Trump managed to bounce back with the help of revised bankruptcy laws that favored debtors. Maintaining his usual business decorum while talking with bankers and lawyers, he acted like a professional man who was still at the top of his game. Since creditors had no interest in losing their investments, they worked with Trump to broker deals. He was forced to appoint a chief financial officer, live on a budget, and standardize operations. In return, Trump was offered a bailout that lowered or suspended his debt interest and, in essence, allowed him to retain most of his valuable assets, namely, his casinos, the rail yards, his residences, and partial interest in the Plaza Hotel.
By the early 1990s Trump was reportedly worth $900 million, and by 1997 his worth was estimated to be almost $2 billion. In fact, Trump was making a comeback when he acquired the Trump Building at 40 Wall Street, a 72-story building located across from the New York Stock Exchange. Real estate experts said the purchase, which took place at the nadir of the 2000s financial downturn, was one of the best deals made in the previous 25 years. In 1998 Trump built a 52-story luxury hotel and residential building on Manhattan's Central Park West. The Trump International Hotel and Tower received some of the highest sale and rental prices in the United States.
The former West Side Railroad Yards, which Trump had secured in the early 1970s, became a $5 billion project known as Trump Place. The site comprised 5,700 residential units, more than five million square feet of commercial space, and 18 buildings. Trump Place was the largest development ever approved by the New York City Planning Commission. Trump also successfully converted into luxury condominium apartments the property at 610 Park Avenue (at 64th Street) formerly known as the Mayfair Regent Hotel. In addition, he completed construction on the Trump World Tower, adjacent to the United Nations, a 90-story luxury residential building. It was described as the most successful condominium tower ever built in the United States and reaped critical acclaim in architectural reviews.
Trump entered into a joint venture with the Chicago Sun Times to build a three-million-square-foot skyscraper directly west of Michigan Avenue, which was anticipated to be one of the biggest buildings in Chicago. In 2002 Trump purchased the Delmonico Hotel at 59th Street and Park Avenue in New York City. Developed in partnership with General Electric, the building was destined to be a luxury high-rise condominium, called Trump Park Avenue. Trump planned to make it the most luxurious building ever built in New York City. In 2002 Trump also entered into partnerships to build the $600 million Trump Grande Ocean Resort and Residences in Miami Beach, Florida, and a luxury condominium tower on the Las Vegas strip.
Trump, or "the Donald," as he was nicknamed, finely crafted his persona over the years with an intense drive to place "Trump" on everything he bought. He issued a stream of news bulletins about his every move, putting himself constantly in the public eye. He was a hands-on businessman who liked to know every detail of his ventures. Considered driven, arrogant, and intelligent, Trump understood the psychology of real estate speculation. He made himself famous with his flamboyant skills at selling himself to the media and personified the American business success story. He thrived on conflict and the ultimate challenge, doing his best when problems seemed insurmountable to others.
See also entry on Trump Organization in International Directory of Company Histories.
sources for further information
Barrett, Wayne, Trump: The Deals and the Downfall, New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 1992.
Blair, Gwenda, The Trumps: Three Generations That Built an Empire, New York: Simon & Schuster, 2000.
Hurt, Harry, Lost Tycoon: The Many Lives of Donald J. Trump, New York: Norton, 1993.
O'Donnell, John R. (with James Rutherford), Trumped!: The Inside Story of the Real Donald Trump—His Cunning Rise and Spectacular Fall, New York: Simon & Schuster, 1991.
Tuccille, Jerome, Trump: The Saga of America's Most Powerful Real Estate Baron, New York: Donald I. Fine, 1987.
—William Arthur Atkins
An American real estate developer, Donald Trump became one of the best known and most controversial businessmen of the 1980s and 1990s.
Donald John Trump was born in 1946 in Queens, New York City, the fourth of five children of Frederick C. and Mary MacLeod Trump. Frederick Trump was a builder and real estate developer who specialized in constructing and operating middle income apartments in the Queens, Staten Island, and Brooklyn sections of New York. Donald Trump was an energetic and bright child, and his parents sent him to the New York Military Academy at age thirteen, hoping the discipline of the school would channel his energy in a positive manner. Trump did well at the academy, both socially and academically, rising to be a star athlete and student leader by the time he graduated in 1964.
During the summers, Trump worked for his father's company at the construction sites. He entered Fordham University and then transferred to the Wharton School of Finance at the University of Pennsylvania, from which he graduated in 1968 with a degree in economics.
Trump seems to have been strongly influenced by his father in his decision to make a career in real estate development, but the younger man's personal goals were much grander than those of his father. After graduating college, Trump joined the family business, the Trump Organization. In 1971 Trump moved his residence to Manhattan, where he became familiar with many influential people. Convinced of the economic opportunity in the city, Trump became involved in large building projects in Manhattan that would offer opportunities for earning high profits, utilizing attractive architectural design, and winning public recognition.
Building an empire
When the Pennsylvania Central Railroad entered bankruptcy, Trump was able to obtain an option (a contract that gives a person the authority to sell something for a specific price during a limited time frame) on the railroad's yards on the west side of Manhattan. When plans for apartments were refused because of a poor economic climate, Trump promoted the property as the location of a city convention center, and the city government selected it over two other sites in 1978. Trump's offer to drop a fee if the center were named after his family, however, was turned down, along with his bid to build the complex.
In 1974 Trump obtained an option on one of the Penn Central's hotels, the Commodore, which was unprofitable but in an excellent location near Grand Central Station. The next year he signed a partnership agreement with the Hyatt Hotel Corporation, which did not have a large downtown hotel. Trump then worked out a complicated deal with the city to revamp the hotel. Renamed the Grand Hyatt, the hotel was popular and an economic success, making Trump the city's best known and most controversial developer.
In 1977 Trump married Ivana Zelnickova Winklmayr, a New York fashion model who had been an alternate on the 1968 Czech Olympic Ski Team. After the birth of the first of the couple's three children in 1978, Donald John Trump, Jr., Ivana Trump was named vice president in charge of design in the Trump Organization and played a major role in supervising the renovation of the Commodore.
In 1979 Trump rented a site on Fifth Avenue next to the famous Tiffany & Company as the location for a monumental $200 million apartment-retail complex designed by Der Scutt. It was named Trump Tower when it opened in 1982. The fifty-eight-story building featured a six-story courtyard lined with pink marble and included an eighty-foot waterfall. The luxurious building attracted well-known retail stores and celebrity renters and brought Trump national attention.
Meanwhile Trump was investigating the profitable casino gambling business, which was approved in New Jersey in 1977. In 1980 he was able to acquire a piece of property in Atlantic City, New Jersey. He brought in his younger brother Robert to head up the complex project of acquiring the land, winning a gambling license, and obtaining permits and financing. Holiday Inns Corporation, the parent company of Harrah's casino hotels, offered a partnership, and the $250 million complex opened in 1982 as Harrah's at Trump Plaza. Trump bought out Holiday Inns in 1986 and renamed the facility Trump Plaza Hotel and Casino. Trump also purchased a Hilton Hotels casino-hotel in Atlantic City when the corporation failed to obtain a gambling license and renamed the $320 million complex Trump's Castle. Later, while it was under construction, he was able to acquire the largest hotel-casino in the world, the Taj Mahal at Atlantic City, which opened in 1990.
Back in New York City, Trump had purchased an apartment building and the Barbizon-Plaza Hotel in New York City, which faced Central Park, with plans to build a large condominium tower on the site. The tenants of the apartment building, however, who were protected by the city's rent control and rent stabilization programs, fought Trump's plans and won. Trump then renovated the Barbizon, renaming it Trump Parc. In 1985 Trump purchased seventy-six acres on the west side of Manhattan for $88 million to build a complex to be called Television City, which was to consist of a dozen skyscrapers, a mall, and a riverfront park. The huge development was to stress television production and feature the world's tallest building, but community opposition and a long city approval process delayed construction of the project. In 1988 he acquired the Plaza Hotel for $407 million and spent $50 million renovating it under his wife Ivana's direction.
It was in 1990, however, that the real estate market declined, reducing the value of and income from Trump's empire; his own net worth plummeted from an estimated $1.7 billion to $500 million. The Trump Organization required massive loans to keep it from collapsing, a situation that raised questions as to whether the corporation could survive bankruptcy. Some observers saw Trump's decline as symbolic of many of the business, economic, and social excesses from the 1980s.
Yet Trump climbed back and was reported to be worth close to $2 billion in 1997. Donald Trump's image was tarnished by the publicity surrounding his controversial separation and the later divorce from his wife, Ivana. But Trump married again, this time to Marla Maples, a fledgling actress. The couple had a daughter two months before their marriage in 1993. He filed for a highly publicized divorce from Maples in 1997, which became final in June 1999.
On October 7, 1999, Trump announced the formation of an exploratory committee to inform his decision of whether or not he should seek the Reform Party's nomination for the presidential race of 2000, but backed out because of problems within the party.
A state appeals court ruled on August 3, 2000, that Trump had the right to finish an 856-foot-tall condominium on New York City's east side. The Coalition for Responsible Development had sued the city, charging it with violation of zoning laws by letting the building reach heights that towered over everything in the neighborhood. The city has since moved to revise its rules to prevent more of such projects. The failure of Trump's opponents to obtain an injunction (a court order to stop) allowed him to continue construction.
For More Information
Blair, Gwenda. The Trumps: Three Generations That Built an Empire. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2000.
Hurt, Harry, III. The Lost Tycoon: The Many Lives of Donald J. Trump. New York : W. W. Norton, 1993.
O'Donnell, John R., with James Rutherford. Trumped!: The Inside Story of the Real Donald Trump. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1991.
Tucille, Jerome. Trump: The Saga of America's Master Builder. New York: D. I. Fine, 1985.