Akiba Ben Joseph
AKIBA BEN JOSEPH
The leading rabbi of his time and one of the founders of Talmudic judaism; b. Palestine c. a.d. 50; d. there, c. 135. He took no interest in learning until he was well on in years, when he studied under Rabbi johanan ben zakkai at Jabneh (Jamnia). Later he founded his own academy, first at Lydda (Lod) and then at Bene Barak. He was the main spiritual force behind bar kokhba in the latter's revolt against the Romans (132–35). After being arrested and tortured by the Romans, he died reciting the Shema Yisrael ("Hear, O Israel…," Judaism's profession of faith, citing Deuteronomy 6.4).
Rabbi Akiba (Akiva, Aqiba) was the first to make a systematic collection of the halakic traditions (see halakah) of the Tannaim ("repeaters," the rabbis of the first two Christian centuries) who handed down the Oral Law (as distinct from the Written Law of Moses); this work of his, as continued by his disciple Rabbi Meïr and still in oral form, was further systematized and recorded in writing in Rabbi judah ha-nasi's mishnah. Another original contribution made by Akiba was his doctrine that the Oral Law was not immutable, but could be adjusted to changing conditions; since this is the basic principle guiding all Talmudic development, he is regarded as father of the talmud.
Bibliography: l. ginzberg, The Jewish Encyclopedia 1:304–10. d. j. bornstein, Encyclopaedia Judaica: Das Judentum in Geschichte und Gegenwart 2:7–22. s. cohen, Universal Jewish Encyclopedia 1: 144–50. j. schmid, Lexikon für Theologie und Kirche 1:778–79. l. finkelstein, Akiba: Scholar, Saint and Martyr (New York 1936). a. guttmann, "Akiba, 'Rescuer of the Torah,"' Hebrew Union College Annual 17 (1942–43) 395–421. s. a. birnbaum, "Bar Kokhba and Akiba," Palestine Exploration Fund Quarterly Statement 86 (1954) 23–32. p. benoit, "Rabbi Aqiba ben Joseph, sage et héros du Judaïsme," Revue biblique 54 (1947) 54–89.
[j. j. dougherty]
Akiba ben Joseph
Akiba ben Joseph
The Palestinian rabbi Akiba ben Joseph (ca. 50-ca. 135) was a founder of rabbinic Judaism. He developed a method of Hebrew scriptural interpretation.
The early life of Akiba ben Joseph is enshrouded in legends, anecdotes, sayings, and numerous references in the Talmud. He was born in the vicinity of Lydda to a humble peasant family. Until well on in years, he was an illiterate shepherd employed by the wealthy Ben Kalba Sabua, whose daughter Rachel married Akiba on condition that he devote himself to learning. Her father opposed the match and banished Rachel from his home.
Akiba labored hard to earn a meager livelihood. When his child started school, Akiba accompanied him, and together they learned to read. Despite many discouragements, Akiba persevered in his studies and at the age of 40 entered the rabbinical academy of Johanan ben Zakkai, a Pharisaic teacher, at Yabneh (Jamnia). In the academy Akiba, himself a commoner, invariably championed the plebeian viewpoint rather than the patrician.
In the year 96 Akiba went with other rabbis on a mission to Rome to persuade the emperor Domitian to revoke an anti-Jewish edict. Shortly after their arrival, Domitian was assassinated, and his successor, Nerva, adopted a more humane policy toward the Jews. From a convert to Judaism in Rome, Akiba received a generous bequest, which enabled him to establish an academy at Bnei Berak near Jaffa. He attracted thousands of students, to whom he lectured under the shady boughs of a palm tree.
Akiba developed a new method of textual interpretation which attached significance and meaning to every word, letter, jot, and tittle of the scriptural text. It was imaginative, but unlike the logical system employed by Hillel, it was rather artificial. With this new approach Akiba was able to adjust the law to the needs of the times. His disciples applied this approach in the Midrashic (biblical expositional) works they compiled.
Another of Akiba's outstanding contributions to scholarship was his arrangement according to subject matter, in divisions and subdivisions, of the earlier collections of the Oral Law, which heretofore had been organized hazardly. His system was further developed by his disciple Rabbi Meir, and it was set up in its present form, the Mishnah, by Judah I (Judah Hanasi, the Prince) about 200.
Akiba played an important role in the Bar Kochba revolt against Rome (132-135) and insisted on continuing to teach the Law, though to do so was a capital offense. He was imprisoned, tortured, and executed by the Romans, dying with the Shema Yisroel ("Hear O Israel," Deuteronomy 6:4), Israel's profession of faith, on his lips.
Herbert Danby's translation of the Mishnah (1933) is excellent. A splendid account of Akiba's life, times, and thought is in Louis Finkelstein, Akiba: Scholar, Saint and Martyr (1936). Finkelstein's chapter, "Akiba," in Simon Noveck, ed., Great Jewish Personalities in Ancient and Medieval Times (1959), is essentially a summary of his book-length study. Morris Adler, The World of the Talmud (1959), deals with the background of the Talmud.
Finkelstein, Louis, Akiba: scholar, saint, and martyr, Northvale, N.J.: J. Aronson, 1990.
Rabbi Akiva: sage of all sages, Woodmere, N.Y.: Bet-Shamai Publications, 1989. □
Akiba ben Joseph (ca. 50-135 C.E.)
Akiba ben Joseph (ca. 50-135 C.E.)
A Jewish rabbi of the first century, who began as a simple shepherd, then became a learned scholar, spurred by the hope of winning the hand of a young lady he greatly admired. According to Jewish legend, he was taught by the elemental spirits, was a wonder worker, and at his peak had as many as 24,000 disciples. He was reputed to be the author of a famous work entitled Yetzirah (On the Creation), which is by some ascribed to Abraham, or to Adam. An early Hebrew edition of the Sepher Yetzirah was printed at Lemberg in 1680: a Latin version was printed in Paris in 1552.
Rabbi Akiba was a great teacher who developed a rabbinical school at Jaffu, and his Mishnah became the foundation of the religious code. He was involved in the revolt of Bar-Cochba against Hadrian in 132 C.E. and suffered martyrdom by being flayed alive.