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Mahfouz, Naguib

Naguib Mahfouz (nəgēb´ mäkhfōōs´), 1911–2006, Egyptian novelist and short-story writer, b. Cairo. After his graduation (1934) from Cairo Univ., he worked in various government ministries until his retirement in 1971. Mahfouz was the best-known and most widely respected 20th-century writer in Egypt and probably in the whole Arab world, where many of his works were adapted for film and television. His novels are characterized by realistic depictions of Egyptian social, political, and religious life in the troubled 20th cent. His fiction features a wide variety of ordinary citizens, usually inhabitants of Cairo, and includes explorations of such issues as the position of women and the treatment of political prisoners. Stylistically, his works rejuvenated literary Arabic, and in 1988 he became the first Arabic writer to win the Nobel Prize in Literature.

In all, Mahfouz wrote 33 novels, 16 short story collections, several plays, 30 screenplays, and a variety of other works. However, much of his reputation is based on his 1956–57 "Cairo Trilogy" —Bayn al-Qasrayn,Qasr ash-Shawq, and As-Sukkariyya (tr. as Palace Walk, 1989, Palace of Desire, 1991, and Sugar Street, 1992)—a sweeping series of novels that traces the history of a middle-class Cairo Muslim family through three generations, from 1917 to 1952. Another well-known novel, Awlad Haratina (1959; tr. Children of Gebelawi, 1981, Children of the Alley, 1995), a semibiblical allegory, includes characters identified with Muhammad, Jesus, Adam and Eve, and Moses. Considered blasphemous by some, it remains controversial in the Arabic-speaking world and was banned in Egypt.

In the 1960s Mahfouz abandoned some of his realistic techniques and began to write shorter, faster-paced novels with stream of consciousness narratives and scriptlike dialogue, e.g., The Search (1964, tr. 1991). His other novels include Midaq Alley (1947, tr. 1975) and Miramar (1967, tr. 1978). Among his short stories are those in God's World (tr. 1973).

Mahfouz was an outspoken advocate of peace between Egypt and Israel, a position that made him a controversial figure in his homeland. In 1994 he was stabbed in an assassination attempt, apparently by an Islamic fundamentalist. Weakened by age, further debilitated by the attack, and unable to write longer pieces, during his late 80s he began to compose extremely brief dream-based vignettes; a number of them were serialized in Egypt and later collected in The Dreams (2005).

See his Echoes of an Autobiography (1997) and Naguib Mahfouz at Sidi Gaber: Reflections of a Nobel Laureate 1994–2001 (2001); studies by S. Somekh (1973), M. Peled (1983), H. Gordon (1990), T. Le Gassick, ed. (1991), M. Beard and A. Haydar, ed. (1993), R. El-Enany (1993), M. Moosa (1994), and M. Milson (1998), R. A. M. Mneimneh, ed. (2004); bibliography by the Bibliographic and Computer Center, Cairo (2003).

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Mahfouz, Naguib

Mahfouz, Naguib (b. 1911). Egyptian author of novels, short stories, and film-scripts. His early works were set in Pharaonic Egypt; then followed novels of social realism, set in Cairo, culminating in the Cairo Trilogy. In 1959, after a long silence, his religious allegory, Awlad Haratina (tr. as Children of Gebelaawi), was serialized in the newspaper Al-Ahram. It caused offence to many readers by its familiar treatment of figures representing Adam, Moses, Jesus, and Muḥammad, and by allowing the death of the old man thought by many to stand for God. Publication in book form has never been permitted in Egypt, but the author has always claimed it to be a deeply religious work. Controversy was revived by the award of the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1988 and, in the wake of the fatwā against Salman Rushdie (see SATANIC VERSES), a hostile opinion was expressed in a Kuwaiti newspaper by Sheikh Omar Abdul-Rahman. Some interpreted this as a fatwā against the author, although the Sheikh himself has vigorously denied it. Mahfouz survived an attempted assassination in Oct. 1994.

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Mahfouz, Naguib

Mahfouz, Naguib (1911– ) Egyptian novelist and short-story writer. He is celebrated mainly for the ‘Cairo Trilogy’ (1956–57) of novels (Palace Walk, Palace of Desire, Sugar Street), which examines the fate of a middle-class family in Cairo between 1917 and the birth of the republic in 1952. His religious allegory Children of Gebelawi (1959) was banned in much of the Arab world. In 1988, Mahfouz became the first writer in Arabic to receive the Nobel Prize in literature.

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