Arthur Hugh Clough
Arthur Hugh Clough
The English poet Arthur Hugh Clough (1819-1861) epitomized in his life and poetry the religious crisis experienced by many Englishmen of the mid-Victorian period.
Arthur Hugh Clough was born in Liverpool in Jan. 1, 1819. In 1829 he entered Rugby, where he quickly distinguished himself as a scholar and an athlete and became a favorite of Rugby's famous headmaster, Thomas Arnold. In 1837 he entered Balliol College, Oxford, and became friends with Benjamin Jowett and Matthew Arnold, the son of Thomas.
The controversy between members of the conservative Oxford movement and more liberal theologians undermined Clough's faith in orthodox Christianity. He maintained his general belief in God; but he became deeply disturbed, and his attempt to keep an open mind on all points of view tended to paralyze his will to act. Thus Clough came to typify his whole generation, which seemed, as Matthew Arnold noted in "Stanzas from the Grande Chartreuse," to be "wandering between two worlds, one dead, the other powerless to be born." Clough himself made this indecision the subject of many poems, such as "Say Not the Struggle Naught Availeth," "Thesis and Antithesis," "Qua Cursum Ventus," and "Easter Day."
In 1842 Clough was granted a fellowship at Oriel College and became a tutor in 1843, but in 1848 he resigned both positions. He then entered into an "after-boyhood" which enabled him to write and publish The Bothie of Tober-na-Vuolich, a Long Vacation Pastoral. This long narrative poem reveals the lighter, charming side of his personality.
In 1848, turning his attention from religious to political crises, Clough journeyed to Paris to observe the revolution and was in Rome in June 1849, when the French attacked the city. While in Rome, he wrote Amours de Voyage, his second long poem and perhaps his best. This poem explores the indecisive personality of the central character, whose inability to act destroys his love affair. Also in 1849, Clough and Thomas Burbidge published a volume of their shorter poems, entitled Ambarvalia. In 1850 Clough began but never finished Dipsychus, a long poem modeled after Goethe's Faust.
In October 1852 Clough sailed for Boston, where he was befriended by Ralph Waldo Emerson, James Russell Lowell, and Charles Eliot Norton. He returned to England in 1853 and in 1854 married Blanche Smith. Giving up his poetry, he turned to the philanthropic work being done by his wife's cousin Florence Nightingale. But his health began to fail, and in 1861 he left England to tour the Mediterranean. He began another long poem, Mari Magno, but never finished it, for he died in Florence on Nov. 13, 1861.
Clough's fame grew after his death. Many of his verses first appeared in a posthumous edition of Poems (1862), and a two-volume edition of Poems and Prose Remains (1869) was reprinted 14 times before 1900.
The best biography of Clough is Katherine Chorley, Arthur Hugh Clough: The Uncommitted Mind (1962). Additional insight into Clough's personality can be gained from Frederick L. Mulhauser's edition of Clough's Correspondence (2 vols., 1957). An excellent modern critical study is Walter E. Houghton, The Poetry of Clough (1963).
Osborne, James Insley, Arthur Hugh Clough, Norwood, Pa.: Norwood Editions, 1976; Philadelphia: R. West, 1978.
Waddington, Samuel, Arthur Hugh Clough: a monograph, New York: AMS Press, 1975. □
"Arthur Hugh Clough." Encyclopedia of World Biography. . Encyclopedia.com. (August 16, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/arthur-hugh-clough
"Arthur Hugh Clough." Encyclopedia of World Biography. . Retrieved August 16, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/arthur-hugh-clough
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.
Clough, Arthur Hugh
Arthur Hugh Clough (klŭf), 1819–61, English poet. He was educated at Rugby and Balliol College, Oxford, where he became friends with Matthew Arnold. After graduation (1841) he was fellow and tutor of Oriel College until 1848 when he resigned. During the next few years he traveled on the Continent. In 1852, inspired by his friendship with Emerson, he went to Harvard and lectured. He pursued a civil service career until his health failed in 1860. His first published work, The Bothie of Toper-na-Vuolich, a narrative in hexameters, appeared in 1848, followed by Ambarvalia, a collection of lyrics, in 1849. His posthumous poems include
"Amours de Voyage,"
and the tales
He is perhaps best known for the short lyric,
"Say not the struggle naught availeth,"
and as the subject of Arnold's elegy,
Skeptical, somewhat cynical, Clough was closer in spirit to the 20th cent. than to the 19th. His poetry reveals not only his doubts about religion and about himself but also his awareness of the social and intellectual problems of his day. Clough's sister, Anne Jemima Clough, 1820–92, was important as a leader in the education of women.
See his complete poems (ed. by H. F. Lowry et al., 1951); his letters (ed. by F. L. Mulhauser, 1974); biography by K. C. Chorley (1962); studies by W. E. Houghton (1963), E. B. Greenberger (1970), and R. K. Biswas (1972).
"Clough, Arthur Hugh." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (August 16, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/clough-arthur-hugh
"Clough, Arthur Hugh." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved August 16, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/clough-arthur-hugh