The American painter Barnett Newman (1905-1970) was a central figure among color-field abstractionists between 1950 and 1970.
Barnett Newman was born in New York City on Jan. 29, 1905. Between 1922 and 1926 he studied with Duncan Smith, John Sloan, and William von Schlegell at the Art Students League and at the same time attended the City College of New York, where he received a bachelor of arts degree in 1927. He did graduate work at Cornell University. In 1936 he married Annalee Greenhouse, and in 1948 he and William Baziotes, Robert Motherwell, and Mark Rothko founded a school of art in New York called "Subjects of the Artist." Throughout his life Newman traveled extensively in the United States, Canada, and Europe. He also taught occasionally: at the University of Saskatchewan in 1959 and at the University of Pennsylvania in 1962-1964. He died in New York City on July 3, 1970.
During most of his career Newman shunned one-man exhibitions, preferring to have his work seen by a small group of friends, patrons, and fellow artists. His list of oneman shows is therefore limited to five. By the 1960s Newman's stature in the field of contemporary painting became increasingly apparent to a wider audience. His work was included in a number of national and international group shows, including the Seattle World's Fair (1962), the São Paulo Bienal (1965), and the Metropolitan Museum of Art's "New York Painting and Sculpture, 1940 to 1970" (1969-1970).
Criticism of Newman's work has shifted recently. During the 1950s he was generally regarded as an abstract expressionist and was linked with artists as diverse as Jackson Pollock, Willem de Kooning, Mark Rothko, Franz Kline, and Robert Motherwell. This link was in part justifiable: in addition to being a member of the abstract expressionist generation, Newman was that group's spiritual ally in its struggle to gain recognition for its new and often radical work.
More recently, Newman's art has been associated with a younger generation of painters, including Jules Olitski and Kenneth Noland. In this case the association is based on the fact that Newman's work consistently eschewed the painterly expressiveness of artists such as De Kooning or Kline. Like his younger counterparts, Newman seems to have been most concerned with generating pictorial space through color alone rather than through violent or explosive brushwork.
In Newman's best paintings, such as Cathedra (1950-1951) and Vir heroicus sublimis (1950-1951), the imagery consists of a single field of color that is inflected by one or two thin vertical bands. But the paint is applied with light, feathery brushstrokes that blend softly into one another and nowhere permit the barest sensation of tactile pigmentation. His rich pictorial space is created through varying densities of a particular color rather than through lines or discrete shapes. In this sense, his paintings are purely optical and eschew the perceptual values of objects or spaces in the world outside of painting.
For Newman's position within contemporary art see Michael Fried, Three American Painters (1965), and Thomas B. Hess, Barnett Newman (1969). An essay by one of Newman's early champions is "Barnett Newman: The Living Rectangle" in Harold Rosenberg, The Anxious Object: Art Today and Its Audience (1964).
Newman, Barnett, Barnett Newman, New York: Abrams, 1978. □
NEWMAN, BARNETT (1905–1970), U.S. painter. Newman was born in New York, to immigrant parents who were interested in music, literature, and art. He began to make drawings as soon as he could hold a pencil. At high school he was introduced to the Metropolitan Museum of Art, after which he regularly studied American painting. Deciding to become a professional artist, Newman persuaded his parents to allow him to enroll in the Art Students League, where he spent considerable time learning to draw from casts. He also studied at the City College of New York. At the Art Students League, he met Adolph *Gottlieb, two years his senior, who became one of his closest friends. When Newman graduated in 1927, his father insisted on his joining the family clothing business, which he virtually took over after the 1929 crash. From 1931 to 1939 Newman worked as a substitute art teacher in high schools.
Although he drew and painted throughout this period, it was not until the late 1940s that he emerged as a major artist, alongside a brilliant group of young Americans, including Pollock, de Kooning, Gorky, *Rothko, Gottlieb, and David Smith, now identified as the Abstract-Expressionists. They reacted to the Ecole de Paris in a moralistic, puritanical manner, against art as luxury. Newman in particular, well-educated and articulate, was the intellectual codifier of the movement. His work became abstract and symbolic, with some influence from Surrealism. Gradually he moved toward a single band or stripe, which allied to titles like "Adam," "The Beginning," "The Word," "The Command" indicates their Jewish mystical origin. He held his first one-man exhibition in January/February 1950, at Betty Parsons Gallery, New York; this and similar early displays of his work met with public hostility. Ten years later, Newman and his fellow Abstract-Expressionists were recognized as the first indigenous modern American school of painting. He once wrote: "Instead of working with the remnants of space, I work with the whole space." It is this concept of "wholeness" which has been exploited by the younger generation of American painters.
[Charles Samuel Spencer]
Barnett Newman, 1905–70, American artist, b. New York City. A member of the New York school, Newman was one of the first to reject conventional notions of spatial composition in art. Often using monumental scale, he took abstraction to its farther reaches. In his severe Stations of the Cross series (1958–66), he divided raw canvas vertically at intervals by black or white bands of various widths. In other paintings (e.g., Who's Afraid of Red, Yellow, and Blue IV?, 1969–70) Newman used large areas of saturated, sometimes primary color punctuated by narrow vertical bands of other colors that he called
as the source of visual and emotional impact. Newman became known as a major painter in the last decade of his life, and his work was an important influence on the practitioners of color-field painting. He also created a number of monumental abstract sculptures.
See study by T. B. Hess (1971).