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Wake, William

Wake, William (1657–1737). Archbishop of Canterbury. A graduate of Christ Church, Oxford, after ordination (1682) Wake was chaplain to the English ambassador in Paris. His contact with Gallican divines at the Sorbonne gave him a continuing interest in the French church. Afterwards he was successively canon of Christ Church, Oxford (1689–1702), dean of Exeter (1703–5), bishop of Lincoln (1705), and archbishop (1716). However, Wake broke with the Whigs by opposing Hoadly's appointment to Bangor (1715), the suspension of convocation (1717), and the repeal of the Occasional Conformity and Schism Acts (1718). From 1723 his influence was eclipsed by Gibson of London. Always personally tolerant, his primary objective was to preserve the traditional latitude of the Anglican church without allowing degeneration into licence. Ecumenical before his time and risking governmental antipathy, he negotiated with the French church for possible union (1717–20) and encouraged intercommunion with continental Lutheran and reformed churches.

Revd Dr William M. Marshall

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Troyens, Les

Troyens, Les (The Trojans). Opera in 5 acts by Berlioz to his own lib. from Virgil's Aeneid. Comp. 1856–8. To achieve a staging, Berlioz in 1863 divided it into two operas: Acts I and II became La Prise de Troie (The Capture of Troy) in 3 acts; Acts III, IV, and V became Les Troyens à Carthage (The Trojans at Carthage) in 5 acts with prelude not in orig. score, this part being perf. in Paris 4 Nov. 1863. First prod. of whole work but with the 2 parts on successive evenings, Karlsruhe, 6–7 Dec. 1890, cond. F. Mottl, likewise in Glasgow 18–19 March 1935, cond. E. Chisholm. F.p. on one evening, London, CG 1957, cond. Kubelik (but cut by 20 mins), f.p. complete on one evening, sung in Eng., Glasgow (Scottish Opera) May 1969, cond. Gibson, f.p. complete on one evening, sung in Fr., London CG Sept. 1969, cond. C. Davis. In Amer., f.p. of condensed vers. Boston March 1955, complete NY Met Sept. 1973.

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Gibson, Paris

Paris Gibson, 1830–1920, American pioneer and politician, b. Brownfield, Maine. After serving in the Maine legislature he moved to Minneapolis, where he built the first flour mill and started woolen mills. By 1879 he was in Fort Benton, Mont., where he became a sheep raiser. Realizing the industrial value of the great falls of the Missouri River, he promoted and planned the city of Great Falls, becoming its first mayor. He was a pioneer in power mining, railroading, and sheep raising in Montana. As U.S. senator (1901–5) he urged progressive Western views on conservation, reclamation, and homestead legislation.

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