(1871–1955)A British ecologist and conservationist who emphasized ecology as an ‘approach to botany through the direct study of plants in their natural conditions’ (Practical Plant Ecology
, 1923), and the fact that since plants exist in communities the ecologist should be concerned with the structure of communities, or ‘plant sociology’. This view became central to most British and American ecological theory. He was a lecturer at the University of Cambridge (1907–23), where much of his ecological work was done, and professor of botany at the University of Oxford (1927–37). Tansley was instrumental in founding the British Ecological Society (1913) and was its first president. His many books include The British Islands and their Vegetation
(1939) and Britain's Green Mantle
(1949). See also Clements, FredericEdward
Doughty, Sir Arthur George
Sir Arthur George Doughty (dou´tē), 1860–1936, Canadian historian and archivist, b. England. As archivist (1904–35) of the dominion, he largely created the archives of the nation. He wrote The Canadian Archives and Its Activities (1924). Doughty's historical works include The Fortress of Quebec (1904) and The Acadian Exiles (1915). With Adam Shortt he edited documents relating to Canadian history.