John Campbell 2d duke of Argyll

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Argyll, John Campbell, 2nd duke of (1678–1743). Soldier and politician. While still in his twenties, Argyll, as head of the powerful Campbell faction, emerged pre-eminent among the Scottish magnates, and as lord high commissioner (1705) played a key role in opening negotiations for the Anglo-Scottish union. He afterwards commanded with distinction in the War of the Spanish Succession, though he conceived a lasting hatred of the duke of Marlborough, much to Tory delight. But his association with Harley's Tory administration turned sour during an embittered spell as commander-in-chief in Spain (1711–12). In 1712 he became commander of the army in Scotland, and in 1715 suppressed the Jacobite uprising, though with reluctance. He lost office during the Whig divisions of 1716–19 but was reinstated, and by 1725 his following was in control of Scottish affairs. His relations with Walpole deteriorated after the Porteous episode (1736–7), and in 1742 his Scottish contingent in the Commons contributed appreciably to the minister's downfall.

Andrew Hanham

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John Campbell Argyll, 2d duke of, 1678–1743, Scottish general; son of the 1st duke, whom he succeeded in 1703. For his ardent support of the union of England and Scotland he was created (1705) earl of Greenwich. He served under the duke of Marlborough in the War of the Spanish Succession (1701–14) and rose to be commander in chief in Spain in 1711. On his return to Scotland he actively supported the succession of George I. He commanded the army that put down the Jacobite rebellion in 1715 and was made duke of Greenwich in 1719.