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York, Edmund of Langley, 1st duke of

York, Edmund of Langley, 1st duke of (1342–1402). Edmund, the fourth surviving son of Edward III, was endowed with lands in Yorkshire in 1347 and created earl of Cambridge in 1362. Negotiations had then begun for his marriage to the count of Flanders's heiress; they foundered when the pro-French pope refused a dispensation. Edmund's marriage in 1372 to the dowerless second daughter of Peter the Cruel was arranged to protect John of Gaunt's Castilian aspirations. He was frequently engaged in military operations from 1359 onward, always in a junior role save in an abortive expedition to Portugal in 1381–2. In English politics he was likewise overshadowed by his brothers Gaunt and Thomas of Woodstock, although Richard II appointed him regent in his absences and he was created duke in 1385. In 1399 York was unable to raise an army against Henry ( IV) and joined the Lancastrian bandwagon.

R. L. Storey

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York, Edmund of Langley, duke of

Edmund of Langley York, duke of, 1341–1402, fifth son of Edward III of England. He was made (1362) earl of Cambridge, served on expeditions to Spain and France, and married (1372) Isabel, daughter of Peter the Cruel, king of Castile. He became (1377) a member of the council of regency for his nephew Richard II and in 1381–82 made a fruitless expedition to help Ferdinand I of Portugal against John I of Castile. He served against the Scots in 1385, and in that year he was created duke of York. He acted as regent when Richard II went to Ireland in 1394–95 and again in 1399. When Henry of Lancaster landed in England in 1399, to claim the throne, Edmund opposed him halfheartedly and finally veered to his support. After Henry's coronation as Henry IV, York retired from court. The royal house of York takes its name from his creation as duke of York.

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