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Demetrius I (king of Macedon)

Demetrius I (Demetrius Poliorcetes) (dĬmē´trēəs pŏl´ēôrsē´tēz), c.337–283 BC, king of Macedon. The son of Antigonus I, he proved himself a very able commander in his father's wars, particularly against Ptolemy I. Though Ptolemy defeated him at Gaza in 312 BC, Demetrius was able to expel Cassander from Athens; he then defeated Ptolemy off Salamis and took Cyprus. Although he had huge armaments, including new weapons of assault, he failed (305 BC) to take Rhodes by sea. When Cassander, Seleucus I, and Lysimachus, fearing the power of Antigonus, allied themselves against him, Antigonus and Demetrius were badly defeated in the battle of Ipsus in 301 BC, and Antigonus was killed. Demetrius later became reconciled with Seleucus I and regained Athens for himself in 295 BC In order to obtain the throne of Macedon he murdered his competitors, including the sons of Cassander, and succeeded (294 BC) to the throne. He had his father's ambition to conquer all Asia, but his enemies united against him, and when Lysimachus and Pyrrhus invaded Macedonia he was forced (285 BC) to take refuge with Seleucus, who held him until he died. His son, Antigonus II, made good his claim to the throne of Macedon.

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Demetrius I (king of ancient Syria)

Demetrius I (Demetrius Soter) (dĬmē´trēəs sō´tər), c.187–150 BC, king of ancient Syria (162–150 BC), son of Seleucus IV. He was sent as a hostage to Rome, where he remained during the reigns of his father and his uncle Antiochus IV. After Antiochus died, he was succeeded by his son Antiochus V, but Demetrius escaped (162 BC), killed his cousin, and took the throne. He put down the revolt of the general Timarchus in Babylon and set out to crush the Maccabees. The usurper Alexander Balas rose against Demetrius and was supported by the Maccabean party as well as by Egypt and Pergamum. Demetrius was defeated in battle.

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Omar I

Omar I (c.581–644), Muslim caliph 634–44. Converted to Islam in 617, after becoming caliph he conquered Syria, Palestine, and Egypt, in the course of which (c.641) the library at Alexandria was burnt.

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