Genetically Engineered Blood-Clotting Factor
Excessive, uncontrolled bleeding can be fatal. Hemophilia is the most common chronic condition that involves uncontrolled bleeding. Hemophiliacs lack a protein called factor VIII, which is required for blood to clot normally. Although purified factor VIII extracted from human blood became available around 1960, it has been very expensive. In addition, impurities in the human factor VIII placed many hemophiliac patients at risk of contracting serious diseases, including hepatitis and, later, AIDS.
Artificially Created Factor VIII
In the early 1980s, scientists at Genentech, Incorporated, and Chiron Corporation in California and at the Massachusetts-based Genetics Institute began developing genetic engineering techniques to obtain pure, inexpensive factor VIII artificially. Genetic engineering refers to methods of rearranging genes —removing or adding them or transferring them from one organism to another.
At Genentech, Richard Lawn, Gordon Vehar, and their coworkers succeeded in isolating the normal gene for factor VIII in healthy people and inserting it into hamster cells, where it joined with the genetic material of the hamsters. The hamster cells then used the new genetic instructions to make pure human factor VIII.
A major problem with this promising method of treating hemophilia inexpensively and safely is that it is difficult to control the amount of factor VIII that the cells produce, and too much factor VIII causes the blood to stop circulating properly. The researchers are continuing their tests to develop a proper dosage of Factor VIII for hemophiliacs, thus making their treatment safer and much more reasonable in cost.
"Genetically Engineered Blood-Clotting Factor." Medical Discoveries. . Encyclopedia.com. (November 14, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/medicine/medical-journals/genetically-engineered-blood-clotting-factor
"Genetically Engineered Blood-Clotting Factor." Medical Discoveries. . Retrieved November 14, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/medicine/medical-journals/genetically-engineered-blood-clotting-factor
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.