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Trifluoperazine

Trifluoperazine

Definition

Trifluoperazine is a phenothiazine antipsychotic agent. In the United States, this drug is sold under the brand name Stelazine.

Purpose

Trifluoperazine is a drug used to treat psychotic disorders, agitation, and dementia .

Description

Trifluoperazine is an effective agent in treating symptoms of psychotic behavior. When used for the treatment of schizophrenia , trifluoperazine reduces symptoms of emotional withdrawal, anxiety, tension, hallucinations , and suspiciousness.

Recommended dosage

The dosage of trifluoperazine should be adjusted to the lowest level needed to control symptoms. The drug may be given orally or by intramuscular injection (a shot).

A useful initial dosage of trifluoperazine for psychotic adults is 2 to 5 mg two times each day. A common total dosage is 15 to 20 mg per day. Some persons may require up to 40 or more mg per day. When using deep intramuscular injection, 1 to 2 mg every four to six hours is usually sufficient to control symptoms within 24 hours. Total intramuscular trifluoperazine should not exceed 10 mg per day.

Control of psychotic symptoms in children between the ages of six and 12 can usually be achieved with 1 to 2 mg per day, given in 1-mg increments. Trifluoperazine is not recommended for use in children younger than six.

Precautions

Trifluoperazine increases the level of prolactin, a hormone that stimulates the mammary glands in the breast, in the blood. This is a potential problem for persons with a personal or family history of breast cancer and may increase the risk of breast cancer. For this reason, the benefits and risks of the drug must be carefully evaluated before it is administered.

Side effects

Relatively common side effects that accompany trifluoperazine include drowsiness, dizziness, rash, dry mouth, insomnia , fatigue , muscular weakness, anorexia, blurred vision, some loss of muscular control, and amenorrhea (lack of menstruation)in women.

Dystonia (difficulty walking or moving) may occur with trifluoperazine use. This condition may subside in 24 to 48 hours even when the person continues taking the drug and usually disappears when trifluoperazine is discontinued.

Trifluoperazine use may lead to the development of symptoms that resemble Parkinson's disease. These symptoms may include a tight or mask-like expression on the face, drooling, tremors, pill-rolling motions in the hands, cogwheel rigidity (abnormal rigidity in muscles characterized by jerky movements when the muscle is passively stretched), and a shuffling gait. Taking anti-Parkinson drugs benztropine mesylate or trihexyphenidyl hydrochloride along with the trifluoperazine usually controls these symptoms.

Trifluoperazine has the potential to produce a serious side effect called tardive dyskinesia . This syndrome consists of involuntary, uncoordinated movements that may appear late in therapy and may not disappear even after the drug is stopped. Tardive dyskinesia involves involuntary movements of the tongue, jaw, mouth or face or other groups of skeletal muscles. The incidence of tardive dyskinesia increases with increasing age and with increasing dosage of trifluoperazine. Women are at greater risk than men for developing tardive dyskinesia. There is no known effective treatment for tardive dyskinesia, although gradual (but rarely complete) improvement may occur over a long period.

An occasionally reported side effect of trifluoperazine is neuroleptic malignant syndrome. This is a complicated and potentially fatal condition characterized by muscle rigidity, high fever, alterations in mental status, and cardiac symptoms such as irregular pulse or blood pressure, sweating, tachycardia (fast heartbeat), and arrhythmias (irregular heartbeat). People who think they may be experiencing any side effects from this or any other medication should talk to their physician promptly.

Interactions

Trifluoperazine may reduce the effectiveness of oral anticoagulant (blood thinning) drugs.

Trifluoperazine increases the effect of drugs and substances that depress the central nervous system and. These drugs include anesthetics, opiates, barbiturates , atropine, and alcohol. These substances should be avoided or used sparingly by people taking trifluoperazine.

Propranolol increases the concentration of trifluoperazine. The blood pressure-lowering effects of guanethidine may be diminished by trifluoperazine. The use of diuretics with trifluoperazine may cause a sudden decrease in blood pressure often accompanied by dizziness due to a change in body position (known as orthostatic hypotension).

The blood concentration of phenytoin is increased by trifluoperazine. This may lead to phenytoin toxicity.

Resources

BOOKS

Adams, Michael and Norman Holland. Core Concepts in Pharmacology. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven, 1998.

Foreman, John C. and Torben Johansen. Textbook of Receptor Pharmacology. 2nd ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press,2002.

Page, Clive P., and Michael Murphy. Integrated Pharmacology. St. Louis: Mosby-Year Book, 2002.

Von Boxtel, Chris J., Budiono Santoso, and I. Ralph Edwards. Drug Benefits and Risks: International Textbook of Clinical Pharmacology. New York: John Wiley and Sons,2001.

PERIODICALS

Nelson J. C. "Diagnosing and treating depression in the elderly." Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 62, Supplement 24(2001): 18-22.

Pisani F., G. Oteri, C. Costa, G. Di Raimondo, and R. Di Perri. "Effects of psychotropic drugs on seizure threshold." Drug Safety 25, no. 2 (2002): 91-110.

Varvel A., E. Vann, E. Wise, D. Philibin, and H. Porter. "Effects of antipsychotic drugs on operant responding after acute and repeated administration." Psychopharmacology (Berlin) 160, no. 2 (2002): 182-191.

ORGANIZATIONS

American Academy of Clinical Toxicology. 777 East Park Drive, PO Box 8820, Harrisburg, PA 17105-8820. Telephone: (717) 558-7750. Fax: (717) 558-7845. Web site: <http://www.clintox.org/index.html>.

American Academy of Family Physicians, 11400 Tomahawk Creek Parkway, Leawood, KS 66211-2672. Telephone:(913) 906-6000. Web site: <http://www.aafp.org/>.

American Medical Association. 515 N. State Street, Chicago, IL 60610. Telephone: (312) 464-5000. Web site: <http://www.ama-assn.org/>.

American Psychiatric Association. 1400 K Street NW, Washington, DC 20005. Telephone: (888) 357-7924. Fax:(202) 682-6850. Web site: <http://www.psych.org/>.

American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 528 North Washington Street, Alexandria, VA 22314. Telephone: (703) 836-6981. Fax: (703) 836-5223.

American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 9650 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20814-3995. Telephone: (301) 530-7060. Fax: (301) 530-7061. Web site: <http://www.aspet.org/>.

L. Fleming Fallon, Jr., M.D., Dr.P.H.

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trifluoperazine

trifluoperazine (try-floo-oh-pair-ă-zeen) n. a phenothiazine antipsychotic drug taken by mouth for the treatment of schizophrenia and other psychoses, severe anxiety, and severe nausea and vomiting. Trade name: Stelazine.

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Trifluoperazine

Trifluoperazine

Definition

Purpose

Description

Recommended dosage

Precautions

Side effects

Interactions

Resources

Definition

Trifluoperazine is a phenothiazine antipsychotic agent. In the United States, this drug is sold under the brand name Stelazine.

Purpose

Trifluoperazine is a drug used to treat psychotic disorders, agitation, and dementia.

Description

Trifluoperazine is an effective agent in treating symptoms of psychotic behavior. When used for the treatment of schizophrenia, trifluoperazine reduces symptoms of emotional withdrawal, anxiety, tension, hallucinations, and suspiciousness.

Recommended dosage

The dosage of trifluoperazine should be adjusted to the lowest level needed to control symptoms. The drug may be given orally or by intramuscular injection (a shot).

A useful initial dosage of trifluoperazine for psychotic adults is 2 to 5 mg two times each day. A common total dosage is 15 to 20 mg per day. Some people may require up to 40 mg or more per day.

When using deep intramuscular injection, 1 to 2 mg every four to six hours is usually sufficient to control symptoms within 24 hours. Total intramuscular tri-fluoperazine should not exceed 10 mg per day.

Control of psychotic symptoms in children between the ages of six and 12 can usually be achieved with 1 to 2 mg per day, given in 1-mg increments. Trifluoperazine is not recommended for use in children younger than six.

Precautions

Trifluoperazine increases the level of prolactin in the blood, a hormone that stimulates the mammary glands in the breast. This is a potential problem for people with a personal or family history of breast cancer and may increase the risk of breast cancer. For this reason, health professionals must carefully evaluate the benefits and risks of the drug before administering it.

Side effects

Relatively common side effects that accompany trifluoperazine include drowsiness, dizziness, rash, dry mouth, insomnia, fatigue, muscular weakness, anorexia, blurred vision, some loss of muscular control, and amenorrhea (lack of menstruation) in women.

Dystonia (difficulty walking or moving) may occur with trifluoperazine use. This condition may subside in 24 to 48 hours even when the person continues taking the drug, and usually disappears when trifluoperazine is discontinued.

Trifluoperazine use may lead to the development of symptoms that resemble Parkinson’s disease. These symptoms may include a tight or mask-like expression on the face, drooling, tremors, pill-rolling motions in the hands, cogwheel rigidity (abnormal rigidity in muscles characterized by jerky movements when the muscle is passively stretched), and a shuffling gait. Taking anti-Parkinson’s drugs benztropine mesylate or trihexyphenidyl hydrochloride along with the trifluoperazine usually controls these symptoms.

Trifluoperazine has the potential to produce a serious side effect called tardive dyskinesia. This syndrome consists of involuntary, uncoordinated movements that may appear late in therapy and may not disappear even after the drug is discontinued. Tar-dive dyskinesia involves involuntary movements of the tongue, jaw, mouth, face, or other groups of skeletal muscles. The incidence of tardive dyskinesia increases with age and with increasing dosage of trifluoperazine. Women are at greater risk than men for developing tardive dyskinesia. There is no known

KEY TERMS

Akathisia —Agitated or restless movement, usually affecting the legs. Movement is accompanied by a sense of discomfort and an inability to sit, stand still, or remain inactive for periods of time. Akathisia is a common side effect of some neuroleptic (antipsychotic) medications.

Amenorrhea —Absence of menstrual periods.

Anorexia —Loss of appetite or unwillingness to eat. Can be caused by medications, depression, or many other factors.

Cogwheel rigidity —An abnormal rigidity in muscles, characterized by jerky movements when the muscle is passively stretched.

Dystonia —A neurological disorder characterized by involuntary muscle spasms. The spasms can cause a painful twisting of the body and difficulty walking or moving.

Orthostatic hypotension —A sudden decrease in blood pressure due to a change in body position, as when moving from a sitting to standing position.

Schizophrenia —A severe mental illness in which a person has difficulty distinguishing what is real from what is not real. It is often characterized by hallucinations, delusions, language and communication disturbances, and withdrawal from people and social activities.

Tardive dyskinesia —A condition that involves involuntary movements of the tongue, jaw, mouth, face, or other groups of skeletal muscles that usually occurs either late in antipsychotic therapy or even after the therapy is discontinued. It may be irreversible.

effective treatment for tardive dyskinesia, although gradual (but rarely complete) improvement may occur over a long period.

An occasionally reported side effect of trifluoperazine is neuroleptic malignant syndrome. This is a complicated and potentially fatal condition characterized by muscle rigidity, high fever, alterations in mental status, and cardiac symptoms such as irregular pulse or blood pressure, sweating, tachycardia (fast heartbeat), and arrhythmias (irregular heartbeat). People who think they may be experiencing any side effects from this or any other medication should tell to their physician promptly.

Interactions

Trifluoperazine may reduce the effectiveness of oral anticoagulant (blood thinning) drugs.

Trifluoperazine increases the effect of drugs and substances that depress the central nervous system. These drugs include anesthetics, opiates, barbiturates, atropine, and alcohol. These substances should be avoided or used sparingly by people taking trifluoperazine.

Propranolol increases the concentration of trifluoperazine. The blood pressure-lowering effects of guanethidine may be diminished by trifluoperazine. The use of diuretics with trifluoperazine may cause a sudden decrease in blood pressure often accompanied by dizziness due to a change in body position (known as orthostatic hypotension).

The blood concentration of phenytoin is increased by trifluoperazine. This may lead to phenytoin toxicity.

Resources

BOOKS

Adams, Michael, and Norman Holland. Core Concepts in Pharmacology. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven, 1998.

Foreman, John C., and Torben Johansen. Textbook of Receptor Pharmacology. 2nd ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2002.

Page, Clive P., and Michael Murphy. Integrated Pharmacology. St. Louis: Mosby-Year Book, 2002.

Von Boxtel, Chris J., Budiono Santoso, and I. Ralph Edwards. Drug Benefits and Risks: International Textbook of Clinical Pharmacology. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 2001.

PERIODICALS

Sawada, K., et al. “Altered Immunoreactivity of Complexin Protein in Prefrontal Cortex in Severe Mental Illness.” Molecular Psychiatry 7.5 (2002): 484–92.

Waring, E. W., P. G. Devin, and V. Dewan “Treatment of Schizophrenia with Antipsychotics in Combination.” Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 44.2 (Mar. 1999): 189–90.

ORGANIZATIONS

American Academy of Clinical Toxicology. 777 East Park Drive, P.O. Box 8820, Harrisburg, PA 17105-8820. (717) 558-7750. Fax: (717) 558-7845. http://www.clintox.org/index.html

American Academy of Family Physicians. 11400 Tomahawk Creek Parkway, Leawood, KS 66211-2672. (913) 906-6000. http://www.aafp.org/

American Medical Association. 515 N. State Street, Chicago, IL 60610. (312) 464-5000. http://www.ama-assn.org/

American Psychiatric Association. 1400 K Street NW, Washington D.C. 20005. (888) 357-7924. Fax: (202) 682-6850. http://www.psych.org/

American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 528 North Washington Street, Alexandria, VA 22314. (703) 836-6981. Fax: (703) 836-5223.

American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 9650 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20814-3995. (301) 530-7060. Fax: (301) 530-7061. http://www.aspet.org/

L. Fleming Fallon, Jr., MD, Dr.P.H.

Ruth A. Wienclaw, PhD

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"Trifluoperazine." The Gale Encyclopedia of Mental Health. . Encyclopedia.com. 12 Dec. 2018 <https://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Trifluoperazine." The Gale Encyclopedia of Mental Health. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 12, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/medicine/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/trifluoperazine

"Trifluoperazine." The Gale Encyclopedia of Mental Health. . Retrieved December 12, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/medicine/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/trifluoperazine

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.