1. Site for the World Expo
The 2010 shanghai world Expo (the World Expo) takes Better City, Better Life as its theme in an attempt to underscore concepts of “harmonious society” and “harmonious city” in the 21st century by means of integrated demonstration, diversified communications, and conceptual innovation.
The site of the World Expo (expo site) is located at the waterfront between Lupu Bridge and Nanpu Bridge, at the edge of the city center of Shanghai, with a planned area of 5.28 square kilometers. The master plan for the site has been optimized and become more detailed based on collected international designs. So far, 18 special plans have been prepared and now the regulatory plan is being actively refined for World Expo zone.
The construction of the expo arena and its neighboring environment will be carried out with priority given to high quality and efficiency. Existing resources and facilities will be fully exploited, developed, and utilized. The internal and external arrangement and construction of the expo arena as a whole will be optimized. The integrated system of transport and service facilities for the World Expo will be perfected to enhance resource sharing and service interaction with the Yangtze River Delta. The allocation, environment, and functional development will be planned as a whole to make the expo arena a new urban public center with multiple functions.
2. Hongqiao Traffic Hinge
Hongqiao Integrated Traffic Hinge links Hongqiao Airport's new terminal with the Beijing-Shanghai express railway, high-speed intercity lines in the Yangtze River Delta, and urban public transport systems. The hinge will be a Shanghai-based portal terminal serving the Yangtze River Delta and the whole country.
This traffic hinge is where national arterial expressway, inter-city lines, intra-city lines, expressway passenger transport lines, city bus lines, city rail transport lines, and civil aviation services intersect and also where parking lots (terminals), hotels, commercial services, and other traffic-related support facilities concentrate. Here urban rail transport, urban public transport, taxis and private vehicles, and other transport modes will be organized effectively to enable rail and air passengers to transfer easily and quickly.
3. The Integrated Development Project along Huangpu River
The integrated development along the Huangpu River covers five districts: Pudong, Luwan, Huangpu, Hongkou, and Yangpu. The planned area is 2,260 ha, with a riverbank stretch of about 20 kilometers, and has four key development zones of Yangpu Bridge, Shanghai Dockyard-North Bund, Shiliupu-Dongchang, and Nanpu Bridge Zone, with 13.7 kilometers of the riverbank (approximately 65%) to be developed. A land area of about 690 ha will be redeveloped as planned, accounting for about 30% of the total land use.
The planned zone on the two banks of the Huangpu River starts from Lupu Bridge in the south and extends to Xiangyin Road-Wuzhou Avenue, with a land area of 22.6 square kilometers, of which 13.3 square kilometers can be used for redevelopment, excluding Lujiazui CBD. The overall development goals are to improve the regional natural eco-environment; develop the riverbank sections for active public activities; create waterfront views with distinct urban features; and form the south-north landscape belt and a leisure and tourism belt characterized by water and greenery. As a result, the Huangpu River will become more beautiful and attractive.
The entire planning is undertaken according to specific local conditions of different sections along the banks of the Huangpu River to create integrated functional zones with unique characteristics. The regional planning for both banks of the Huangpu River designs three characteristic zones as follows:
The northern section extends from Wuzhou Avenue to Xiangyin Road Yangpu Bridge, focusing on education, housing, leisure, and entertainment, including the zone for colleges and scientific research institutes, institutions in Puxi, characteristic housing, leisure zone in Fuxingdao, and the characteristic waterfront residences on both banks.
The middle section starts at Yangpu Bridge and ends at Nanpu Bridge, focusing on commercial offices, business, culture, and dwelling functions, including CBD, international passenger terminal, hotels, and entertainment zones with historical aspects at the western side of Hongkou Port, entertainment zone, Shiliupu tourism market, and Dongjiadu commercial and trading zone, Pudong's Dongchang Dock holiday market, as well as diverse riverside residential quarters.
The southern section goes from Nanpu Bridge to Lupu Bridge, focusing on exposition, culture, leisure, and living functions. Selected as the site for holding the World Expo, this section will be planned and developed as a whole in connection with the post-expo utilization.
The integrated development of the two banks of the Huangpu River will be implemented in stages. In the near future, the development will be centered on the six-kilometer-long section of Lujiazui and the Old Bund. In the mid-term development, the focus will be placed on the Nanpu and Yangpu bridges. The later development will be extended to Wusongkou in the north and to Minhang District in the south.
The goal for the integrated development of the Huangpu River is to make it as beautiful as the Seine in Paris. Many warehouses, ports, and docks used to stand along the Huangpu River. Now the river is going to become a comprehensive community for tourism, shopping, leisure, living, and offices.
3.2 Four Key Points of Integrated Development Plan along the Huangpu River
Yangpu Bridge Zone : With an area of about 1.99 square kilometers, this zone will become a waterfront residential quarter characterized by a traditional urban style as well as a scientific and educational office area. Its landscape focuses on the effect of a visual passage leading to the waterfront and a road network at a 45° angle to the river bank, while the waterfront's public buildings will be constructed on the basis of historical architecture, enriching the riverbank views with a waterfront greenbelt, bridge park, and so on.
Shanghai Dockyard-North Bund Zone : With an area of about 1.06 square kilometers, this zone will be able to match the Bund and Lujiazui central area with the construction of an international passenger transport center and the rebuilding of Shanghai Dockyard. To make full use of the meeting point of the Huangpu River and Suzhou River as well as the bend in the Huangpu River, an arched cable-stayed footbridge and an artificial isle or cable cars will be built. In addition, a series of eye-catching public facilities with distinctive images, such as yacht dock, will be provided along the river.
Shiliupu-Dongchang Zone : With an area of about 0.35 square kilometers, this zone takes Shiliupu and Dongchang Dock as the key points to connect history and the future, focusing on the integration of urban outlook and functions. Part of the warehouse in the north of Dongchang Port Area will be rebuilt into a holiday market.
Nanpu Bridge Zone : With an area of about 3.43 square kilometers, this zone will introduce large facilities for culture, education, research, and sports to become an integrated zone for living, entertainment, and office. The end of Xizang Road South will be turned into an artificial islet with a unique landscape. This islet will become an attraction comparable to the main expo site. According to the plan initiated by the SOM, a design company from the U.S.A., an inland river will be dug beside the Huangpu River to create an artificial islet and expand the greenbelt and waterway into the hinterland. This creative proposal will most probably be adopted and implemented, adding another scenic spot to Shanghai.
4. Waterfront Area of the Suzhou River
The waterfront landscape planning of the Suzhou River ranges from the Huangpu River in the east to Zhongshan Road West in the west. Such planning reflects the natural and cultural landscapes along the two banks of the Suzhou River. With the uplifted level of landscape development on these riverbanks, the area along Suzhou River will be developed into a living and leisure community with clear water, attractive environment, and harmonious atmosphere, allowing the river to play a role in promoting social progress and environmental development.
At the same time, the landscape, afforestation, and management of public passages in the areas along Suzhou River will be implemented. At present, 80% of public passages in the area along Suzhou River have been connected and the planned public greenbelt is 3,250,000 square meters.
The planning is based on previous detailed plans for the areas along Suzhou River according to the principle of “increasing the greenbelt and space while decreasing the capacity.” Aiming at a high starting point and a high standard, this planning will drive and guide the orderly land development along the Suzhou River for a better landscape.
The planned length of the waterfront area along Suzhou River is 13.3 kilometers, ranging from the Huangpu River in the east to Zhongshan Road West in the west. This zone is slated as a living and leisure quarter with clear water, extensive greenbelt, beautiful environment, and harmonious atmosphere, and acts as a key eco-landscape axis in the central city area. The riverside area will be turned into concentrated greenbelts in harmony with nature and the neighboring architectural environment, reflecting diverse styles and features. The planning will carefully define the control conditions for the land development and reduce the construction capacity of the area along Suzhou River to ensure the openness of the public waterfront space. Historical buildings worthy of preservation will be fully developed with their original historical and cultural functions and their appearance protected and restored.
With the water surface deducted, the area of the Suzhou River waterfront zone will be 6.8 square kilometers, including six nodes: Wusong Road Bridge Area, Zhelu Bridge Area, Wuzhen Road Bridge Area, Hengfeng Road Bridge Area, Changhua Road Bridge Area, and Caoyang Road Bridge Area. The current plot ratio of the area is 3.5 and the average building height along the river is 70 meters, with some projects reaching 100 meters, which has seriously affected landscape along the river. The planned key adjustments include broadening the riverside greenbelts and setting back the boundary line of roads by ten meters for the southern bank and 20 meters for the northern bank; reducing the plot ratio below 2.5 for residences and less than four for commercial purposes; controlling the height of buildings within 26 meters for the first row along the southern bank and less than 30 meters for those on the northern bank. The planned roads will cover 143 ha, making up 21% of the total land area. The planned land for real estate development is 150 ha, accounting for 22.1% of the total land use.
The large concentrated greenbelts along the landscape line will be increased. At the same time, a continuous public waterfront greenbelt will be built up to improve the urban eco-environment and diversify the urban spatial landscape through a proper layout of point, line, and surface, turning the Suzhou River into a “green passage.” The short-term planned greenbelt area is 6.7 kilometers covering a land area of 0.7 ha with water access provided at three spots. There are 25 concentrated riverside greenbelts as approved by Shanghai Central Greenbelt Planning, with a total land use of 25.9 ha. An additional 95 greenbelts will be constructed with a total land area of 52 ha. Two parks will be built in Wusong Road Bridge Area and Changhua Road Bridge Area with a land area of 4.2 ha. A public space system composed of point, line, and surface will be created, mainly including public land activity routes, water activity routes, and public activity nodes.
Wusong Road Bridge Area (estuary) is a part of the Bund skyline, acting as the portal into the city center from the Huangpu River. The planning goal and principle are to re-instate the original views using new functions. Functionally it will make full use of its regional and cultural advantages and turn itself into an integrated community featuring culture, commerce, entertainment, urban leisure, and tourism. As to landscape positioning, estuary views will be created while at the same time the local historical views are restored and preserved. The “tooth-inserting” method will be adopted in the protective redevelopment. The building height will not exceed 40 meters. The total planned land area is 49.54 ha, the water surface is 7.42 ha, the area of roads 11.3 ha, and the building area 933,800 ha, with a general plot ratio of 1.9.
Changhua Road Bridge Area runs from Changshou Road to Jiangning Road. The planning seeks to address the issue of over-development. The winding watercourse of Suzhou River in this area will be utilized to build up a large waterfront scenic greenbelt garden, creating a regional leisure site and a hot spot for urban activities in the middle section of Suzhou River. The landscape here is to be open and broad to fully reflect the urban views and attractions. The large waterfront scenic greenbelt garden will take into account the river bend, creating a regional leisure site for urban activities. The planned total land use is 11,794 ha, the water surface is 14.76 ha, the area for roads will be 15.83 ha, and the building area will be 2,367,600 ha, with a general plot ratio of 2.2.
Zhejiang Road Bridge Area stretches from Fujian Road to Xizang Road. Based on a functional replacement of historical buildings through partial improvement, the area aims to provide an office center to small enterprises and SOHOs located along the northern bank in support of the building of Beijing Road Sci-Tech City. The southern bank will be turned into a leisure and entertainment center. As for landscape, the existing urban architecture will be preserved and continued, and the environmental design will fully integrate history and modern times. The lateral greenbelt vista and vertical road greenbelts will guide the pedestrian flow to Suzhou River, where the water platforms will allow easy access to the water surface and the waterfront parks provide more open space to tourists. The broad sidewalks and tall trees will contribute to an attractive, safe, and agreeable pedestrian space. The planned total land area is 31.96 ha, the water surface is 3.97 ha, the area of roads will be 8.61 ha, and the building area will be 54.93 ha, with a general plot ratio of 1.7.