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Higher Education

Chapter 3
Higher Education

1. Introduction

2. Reform of the Management System

3. Innovation of the Investment and Financing System

4. Restructuring the Layout

5. Project 211

6. Cooperative Running of Universities in Southwestern Shanghai

7. Cooperation in the Running of Universities in Northeastern Shanghai

8. Recruitment and Entrance Examinations

9. University Recruitment in Shanghai

10. University Graduate Employment in Shanghai

11. Development of Top-Quality Curriculum

12. Graduate Education

13. Management of Teaching Staff

14. Appointment of Academic Staff

15. Selecting and Fostering Excellent Young Teachers

16. Developing Key Disciplines

17. Science, Technology, Humanities, and Social Sciences

18. Integration of Industry, Universities, and Research

19. University Science Parks

20. Higher Special Education

1. Introduction

It is believed that the Western and Eastern cultures met each other in the modern history of Shanghai, one of the most developed regions in education in China. The development of higher education in Shanghai epitomizes the modernization of education in China. In fact, the establishment of Shanghai Guangfang College of Liberal Arts in 1863 marked the start of higher education in the modern sense in Shanghai. Nanyang Public School (now Shanghai Jiaotong University) is one of the pioneering universities founded by the Chinese and it already has a history of 110 years. Fudan University and Shanghai University of Science and Technology, established in 1905 and 1906 respectively, have both had their centennial celebration. Tongji University, which was founded in 1907, will have its centennial celebration soon.

The post-1949 period of China, especially since the opening-up in 1978, witnessed the rapid and sound development of higher education in Shanghai. Another wave of progress at a more vigorous and faster pace started in 1998. Today, higher education in Shanghai has made remarkable achievements in terms of scale, facilities, management, and academic standards. In 2005, the gross enrolment rate (the percentage of people aged between 18 to 22 who receive any kind of higher education) of higher education in Shanghai reached 57%, up by 2% over that of the previous year. There were 804,000 students in both regular and adult institutions of higher education.

In 2005, there were 60 institutions of higher education (including private universities and vocational colleges), four of which were independent colleges. Aside from 58,200 students receiving their higher education via online programs, there were 442,600 regular undergraduates. There were 70,900 teaching and academic staff in 60 institutions of higher education, with 36,000 of them working in city-run institutions. There were 31,800 full-time teachers, 18,300 of whom were in municipal-level institutions. There were 78,700 postgraduates and 26,200 overseas students in Shanghai. In 2005, 131,800 undergraduates and 27,700 postgraduates were enrolled in institutions of higher education in Shanghai, including 1,679 from Hong Kong, Macao, or Taiwan. In 2005, employment for 103,400 graduates of regular higher institutions went smoothly.

The project titled “2+2+X” was launched in Shanghai to restructure the city’s institutions of higher education. By the end of the Tenth Five-Year-Plan period, Shanghai had an additional 28,200 mu of campus area, up by 140% from that in the Ninth Five-Year-Plan period. The city also built 5,438,700 square meters of new schoolhouses, up by 58.5% compared with that in the previous five years. The system of educational investment was also optimized by establishing Shanghai Shenjiao Educational Investment Co., Ltd. In planning the stock and increment of educational resources, the company successfully financed the campus expansion projects.

The first five joint training centers for postgraduates in Shanghai were approved in 2005. Thirty-five Highland projects for improving undergraduate education were established. Sixty-nine specializations were included by the SMG in the second round of focused development, among which 15 were advantageous specializations, 39 unique ones, and 15 for nurturing. For the third time, 100 best courses in Shanghai were selected and appraised, 35 of which were recommended to enter the competition for the best national courses. The MEC of Shanghai chose 135 courses for focused development. In the same year, 403 teaching achievements won the Shanghai Teaching Achievement Award, 49 of which were granted the Fifth National Higher Education Teaching Achievement Award. By the end of November 2005, Shanghai had filed altogether 2,576 patent applications and been granted 1,007 patents. Shanghai ranked first in China in terms of the number of patents. Institutions of higher education in Shanghai claimed 52.53% of all the winners of Shanghai Science and Technology Achievement Award, 61% of them being first prize winners and 54.2% second prize winners. During the 2005 Shanghai International Industrial Fair, the exhibition section for institutions of higher education secured deals worth RMB 317 million.

To further consolidate the enrolment based on the policies of Two Examinations and Two Enrolments annually and opening up new enrolment channels, three institutions of higher education were permitted to conduct their own entrance examinations, set their own enrolment standards, and recruit their own students according to relevant laws in the first half of 2005. Shanghai has always enjoyed a leading employment rate for university graduates in China, which hit 98.4% in 2005. Among the students in regular institutions of higher education, 268,000 were pursuing degree courses in universities and 174,600 studied in vocational colleges, a growth of 6.5%, or 26,900 more than that of the previous year. The number of newly recruited undergraduates was 131,800, and 103,400 students graduated. There were 78,700 postgraduates undertaking research in 51 institutions, up by 13.4%, or 9,300 more than that of the previous year. Among these postgraduates, 19,600 were pursuing PhDs and 59,100 working on master’s degrees. There were 27,700 newly enrolled postgraduates, with 5,600 and 22,100 being PhD and master candidates respectively.

There were 21 institutions of higher education for adults in Shanghai with 224,500 registered students. These institutions enrolled 93,200 students and graduated 76,800 in 2005. A total of 9,600 students registered for the National Qualification Examination for bachelor’s degrees and 3,600 of them graduated. There were 77,300 registered adult students for the online programs. The new enrolment in 2005 was 28,100. In addition, the STHEEs offered 86 specializations for undergraduates and non-degree programs in 606 testing courses. Over 300,000 adults had already sat for such tests. The total number of undergraduates, postgraduates, and adult students was 804,000, up by 6.9%, or 52,200 students more than that of the previous year. In 2005, there were 26,200 overseas students in regular institutions of higher education in Shanghai and 1,679 students were from Hong Kong, Macao, and Taiwan.

2. Reform of the Management System

Along with the rapid socioeconomic development, the market economic system in China is firmly established and gradually perfected. Higher education in Shanghai faces many new situations and problems in the new social circumstances, calling for urgent breakthroughs in the development and reform patterns, as well as an innovative system. After years of endeavor, unprecedented progress has been registered in improving the higher-educational management system, the school system, the financing system, and other operational mechanisms, laying a solid foundation for the popularization of higher education in Shanghai.

At the beginning of the 1990s, there were 51 regular universities and colleges in Shanghai which belonged under 20 central ministries and commissions and 14 municipal committees, offices, and bureaus, with an average population of 2,600 people. Resources were not at all optimized. Universities and colleges located in Shanghai but administered by central ministries and commissions could hardly receive any support from local authorities. Higher education in Shanghai at the time may be described as “different ownership, dispersed resources, redundant construction, and separate management,” which seriously hampered the development of higher education in Shanghai.

Starting from 1994, with the central government’s support, Shanghai implemented a new system of joint development and shared management in some universities located in Shanghai but managed by central ministries and commissions. The joint development of colleges and universities was integrated into the overall plan for Shanghai’s urban construction and development. Being put under the same operating mechanism as the municipally owned universities and colleges, these universities were also entitled to fiscal subsidies from the local government. Statistics indicate that in the past ten years, Shanghai has invested RMB 5.38 billion in eight colleges and universities under the MOE to help them implement Project 211 and Project 985.1

1 A project started by China’s Ministry of Education at the proposal of former President Jiang Zemin who called on the nation to build a group of world-class universities in the 21st century in a speech given on May 4, 1998.

A large proportion of the municipal subsidies went to Fudan University, Shanghai Jiaotong University, and Tongji University, which had been striving to become world first-class universities under Project 985. The first and second phases of development in these universities received an investment of RMB 1.5 billion and RMB 1.7 billion respectively. In addition, seven universities under the municipal government and one normal university have successively been included in the joint development program. One university was incorporated into Fudan University, increasing the latter’s campus space by approximately 866.67 hectares. Such joint development programs have enormously expanded the campus of colleges and universities, optimized the use of educational resources, and boosted university development in Shanghai.

At the same time, 12 universities formerly under central ministries and commissions are now under the SMG. Nine universities formerly under SMG departments other than the MEC have also been incorporated under the latter’s ambit. While positively striving for support from the originally responsible authorities, Shanghai has integrated these newly converted universities into the overall development plan of higher education in Shanghai. The multitudinous problems that these universities faced before have been alleviated. The enrolment of these converted universities has increased from 32,900 (before the conversion in 2004) to 67,500 now, along with an increase in their financial subsidies from RMB 257 million to RMB 438 million.

Under the state policy of “positive encouragement, vigorous support, correct guidance, and enhanced management,” Shanghai has pushed further with the school system reform; higher education institutions and cooperative projects involving diverse economic factors have experienced rapid development. A new pattern of educational development has taken shape through the joint efforts of the government, the private sector, and overseas educational organizations. Both public and private education have benefited from this new pattern. Since the establishment of China’s first private university in the early 1990s, another 15 private universities have been established.

Over the past over ten years, private educational institutions in Shanghai have matured: they have not only expanded dozens of times in quantity, but also made breakthroughs in aspects such as total value of school assets, the level of teaching staff, and campus area. Shanghai has now 66,900 registered students in 16 existing private universities, accounting for 15.1% of the total number of registered students in regular universities. Among them, 9,400 (or 3.5% of the total) are undergraduates.

3. Innovation of the Investment and Financing System

Higher education in Shanghai has experienced great innovation in its investment and financing system, resulting in investments from various sectors being absorbed while the government remains the main source of investment. For a long time higher education depended solely on government investment under the planned economy system. This resulted in inadequate investment, with low investment returns under a rigid operation mechanism. With the establishment and gradual improvement of the socialist market economy, the residents’ living standards and their needs for education have been constantly on the rise. Shanghai had to reform its investment and financing system in higher education in light of the changed circumstances.

The reforms involve the following. First, the system of cost sharing of education has been legitimized. In other words, beneficiaries of education contribute their share. This has ensured that a system for awarding scholarships, student loans and stipends, together with the reduction and exemption of the miscellaneous fees, is simultaneously put in place. These measures have been accepted by the public and parents of students. The second issue in the reform involves the combination of measures like “allocation and reward,” “allocation and discount loan,” and “direct allocation replaced by investment.” Shanghai has broken away from the tradition of allocating funds to increasing funds, using efficiently the limited funds, strengthening the sense of responsibility in the operation of school funds, and displaying the guiding function of state-owned capital. In 2003, the municipal government invested RMB 1.1 billion to set up Shenjiao Educational Investment Co. Ltd. to transform direct government financial allocation into investment. So far the company has been actively involved in stimulating and replacing the educational resources.

The third issue relates to the full use of the capital market and standardization of financing to solve the shortage of construction funds. In 1998, Shanghai pioneered a mechanism of using the capital market to finance educational development projects by obtaining RMB 6.5 billion in bank loans. Shanghai also implemented a new financing mechanism called BOT. Under this mechanism, the government provides the land, social funds directly get involved, financial organizations offer loans, the completed projects are for school use, and schools collect tuition to repay loans. Using this mechanism, Shanghai has successfully completed the Songjiang University City and many student apartment buildings.

4. Restructuring the Layout

In accordance with the State Council’s policy of joint development, adjustment, cooperation, and merger, Shanghai has been pushing forward with the reform of the management system of higher education by restructuring the layout of universities and colleges since 1992. It has merged 28 regular universities and six adult universities into 11 new ones, and eight local universities into universities under the MOE. Shanghai and the MOE are jointly developing and managing eight universities under the MOE. Twelve colleges and universities under central ministries and commissions other than MOE have been put under the administration of Shanghai.

To expand the enrolment of higher educational institutions, Shanghai has been, since 1999, restructuring its university layout with emphasis on the expansion of school space. It has completed construction projects in the new campus of Shanghai University, Songjiang University City, and Nanhui Science, Technology and Education Garden through different patterns. During the Tenth Five-Year Plan, Shanghai started a new round of restructuring university layout in order to further improve the university facilities, expand their size, optimize the higher educational structure, and upgrade the key universities and specialized universities. By focusing on Fudan University and Shanghai Jiaotong University located in the north and south, Shanghai has formed two key university highlands. Surrounding Songjiang University City and Nanhui Science, Technology and Education Garden in the east and west of Shanghai are a number of new specialized universities having close ties with the industries.

Reforming the management system of higher education has enhanced Shanghai’s ability to implement comprehensive planning and management. Twelve universities formerly under central ministries and commissions have been transferred to local governments. By the end of 2005, the restructuring of universities and colleges in Shanghai was nearly completed. The system of educational investment was also reformed by establishing Shanghai Shenjiao Educational Investment Co., Ltd. Planning the stock and increment of educational resources as a whole, the company successfully financed the project of campus expansion. Legitimate and independent management of higher education was improved and human resource management in universities and colleges was also gradually enhanced. A new pattern of educational development has been formed through the joint efforts of the government, the private sector, and overseas educational organizations. It has benefited both public and private systems of education.

5. Project 211

Project 211 refers to the central government’s decision to build about 100 universities and a number of key disciplines in the 21st century. During the Ninth Five-Year Plan, 101 universities were listed in the Project 211 in the country, 12 of which are Shanghai-based. Given later merging and restructuring of universities, the number of universities envisaged in Project 211 has shrunk to 93 and those of Shanghai from 12 to 11.

Of the 11 Shanghai-based universities included in Project 211, eight are directly under the MOE, including Fudan University, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Tongji University, East China Normal University, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai Finance and Economics University, Shanghai International Studies University, and Donghua University. Two are local institutions—Shanghai University and Shanghai Second Medical College. The remaining one is Second Military Medical University. During the Tenth Five-Year Plan, the central government allocated RMB 595 million of special funds to Shanghai’s institutions of higher education, mainly for the development of key disciplines, public service system, teaching staff, and infrastructure projects. Eight of these universities included in Project 211 (excluding Second Military Medical University) then received a matching grant from the municipal government at a ratio of 1:1. The two local institutions in Project 211 were allocated RMB 500 million. These funds were expended mainly on 90 key disciplines or disciplinary groups, 40 public service systems of higher education, 21 projects for strengthening the teaching staff, and six infrastructure projects (the infrastructure development of Shanghai Second Medical College and Shanghai University were listed separately).

The Project 211, implemented during the Tenth Five-Year Plan, has improved the use of campus facilities, enhanced the quality of teaching, encouraged technical innovation, and raised management standards. A number of key disciplines were built and more talents were trained in light of local economic and social development. The project promoted the development of the key educational network of China, the literature safeguarding system, and the system for sharing facilities and quality resources. The project also boosted a new round of development in Shanghai and the Yangtze River Delta, contributing to China’s overall socioeconomic development.

6. Cooperative Running of Universities in Southwestern Shanghai

Thirteen universities in southwestern Shanghai forged a collaboration led by Shanghai Jiaotong University. The management committee of these universities was founded in June 1994 as an inter-collegiate cooperative organization based on voluntary union, mutual benefits, and coordinated development.

The purpose of cooperative running of universities is to better utilize the instruction and research facilities of member universities, share resources, and support one another, thus raising the quality of education. The 13 member universities are Shanghai Jiaotong University East China Normal University, East China University of Science and Technology, Donghua University, Shanghai Chinese Medicine University, East China Institute of Political Science and Law, Shanghai Drama Institute, Shanghai Conservatory of Music, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai Engineering Technology University, Shanghai Institute of Applied Technology, Shanghai University, and Shanghai Lixin Accounting Institute. The collaboration leverages on the strength of its member universities, develops resource-sharing capability, and complements one another as a team.

The management committee is composed of the presidents of member universities and institutes with the president of Shanghai Jiaotong University acting as its director. The management committee has a permanent office in Shanghai Jiaotong University. The office comprises six cooperation groups in charge of work related to undergraduates, graduates, student affairs, research, analysis and test, and trade union.

The undergraduate cooperation group explores the overall use of teaching resources and new ways of cooperation. It has attained achievements in the pursuit of a second specialization, cross-university elective curriculum, as well as multilateral cooperation. Until now, the group altogether have sorted out 49 cross-university auxiliary specializations, covering ten disciplines including science, engineering, management, law, medicine, drama, and music. The academic standards, the curriculum requirement, and merit points have been further clarified so as to guarantee the quality of teaching of these cross-university auxiliary second specializations. A database has been created for the employment of teachers (including retired professors) across these member universities, which has enhanced the effective use of quality teaching resources.

7. Cooperation in the Running of Universities in Northeastern Shanghai

Led by Fudan University, the cooperative running of universities in northeastern Shanghai started in 1995. At present, the collaboration has ten universities. The standing office of the collaboration located in Fudan University has eight cooperation groups which are in charge of learning, research, books and reference, students’ affairs, and other matters. For the past 11 years, this collaboration has enhanced the members’ ability to complement one another, share resources, seek reciprocal benefits, and promote coordinated development on four fronts: learning, research, book information, and psychological consultation.

With regard to learning, various member universities and their administration offices have undertaken a series of cross-university projects, such as cross-university hiring of teachers, cross-university elective curriculum, and peripatetic lectures of distinguished professors. These projects have fully ensured the high quality of learning resources in member universities, satisfied students’ intellectual curiosity, and brought benefits to over 10,000 students.

On research, cooperation not only saves research costs, but also promotes thought collision among experts and researchers from different universities and different academic orientations, thus powerfully contributing to the development of research projects. Since its establishment, the northeastern university collaboration has undertaken massive research projects in the automobile industry, green materials, and finance and insurance. These collaborative research projects include, among others, the joint research between Fudan University and the Shanghai Aquatic University on the natural raw material of biodegradation and the development and applied research of circulation use of environmentally friendly ammonia ester material; Fudan University and Shanghai University of Science and Technology’s cooperation on emulation design of automotive lamps with a lens to distribute light rays; the cooperation of Fudan University, Shanghai Aquatic University, Shanghai University of Science and Technology, and Shanghai Marine Transportation Institute on the mechanism research of frozen meat’s refreshing under high pressure and static electricity; and Tongji University and Shanghai University of Science and Technology’s collaboration on the development of the automatic tracking simulation blower fan for automobile experiment.

Concerning book information, in 1998, with the support of the MEC, the northeastern collaboration established the compact disc sharing and retrieval center, providing teachers and students of the member universities with rapid, accurate search for domestic and foreign academic literature materials, enormously facilitating the development of key disciplines, research, and learning. A literature delivery system has also been established to facilitate information sharing among teachers and students of member universities.

The last area of cooperation involves psychological consultation. The northeastern collaboration management committee established a special psychological consultation group to organize conferences and seminars on psychological consultation among its member universities. With the cooperation between the psychological consultation group and the collaboration of member universities, psychological consultation has been playing a uniquely important role in fostering talents.

8. Recruitment and Entrance Examinations

The tuition system for higher education was introduced in 1992 in Shanghai. More and more universities have adopted the tuition system, with the exception of teacher-training universities and other specialized institutions focused on agriculture and forestry. SMG and the universities allocated special funds to support financially challenged students through scholarships, student loans, stipends, work-study programs on campus, and so on. Universities were granted greater autonomy in defining enrolment standards and administrative systems, albeit under the guidance of related national policies.

In 2000, Shanghai took the lead in implementing the spring entrance examination in some universities for all graduates from senior high schools, colleges of professional training, and higher vocational institutions. Shanghai also began to organize another entrance examination in the autumn. The “two examinations, two recruitments” greatly reduced students’ academic pressure and created a congenial environment for quality education.

In 2005, Shanghai took the lead in piloting university independent recruitment. Three private universities implemented independent recruitment based on the government’s recruitment plan by organizing examinations and determining recruitment standards. In 2006, Fudan University and Shanghai Jiaotong University adopted the interview system in recruiting 600 senior high school students ahead of the traditional recruitment period.

Shanghai also sped up the reform of the graduate educational system on three fronts. First, there was the need for innovation in the enrolment system. Graduate schools were allowed to recruit graduate students by themselves in accordance with the principle of self-recommendation, fair and transparent admission by qualification. Second, there was the need for innovation in the fostering system. Universities cooperated with scientific research institutes and industrial groups to foster graduate students. The third point relates to cost sharing. A new mechanism under which the state, the institutions, and higher degree candidates share the cost of education was explored. Various scholarships, student loans, assistance stipends (for teaching, research, and management), on-campus jobs, and tuition reduction and exemption were established and improved to support graduate students. Outstanding graduate students are awarded scholarships or assistance stipends; the average graduate students enjoy partial tuition exemption or reduction on condition that they take part-time on-campus jobs; and the rest have to pay for the tuition.

9. University Recruitment in Shanghai

A total of 139,924 university students were recruited in 2005, including the autumn recruitment, the spring recruitment, and the recruitment of graduates from higher vocational, technical, and private schools. The planned recruitment was 108,018, though the actual recruitment came to 109,282, that is, 101.17% of the planned recruitment. The enrolment rate was 78.10%. Undergraduate enrolment reached 55,357, accounting for 50.66% of the total. Higher vocational and technical institutions enrolled 53,925 students, accounting for 49.34% of the total. The undergraduate enrolment in 2005 increased over that in 2004 and surpassed 50% of the total for the first time.

10. University Graduate Employment in Shanghai

The university graduate employment system has undergone a shift from the previous government-guided unified distribution to allocation via the talent market. The universities and colleges are enjoying more power in providing employment guidance and recommendation. The two-way selection between potential employers and university graduates is vigorously exercised. The Shanghai University Graduate Career Guidance Center, an agency between the job market and the graduates, plays a vital role in graduate employment.

In 2005, Shanghai had altogether 117,000 graduates, 17,000 of whom were graduates with higher degrees, 54,000 with bachelor’s degree, and 46,000 with diplomas. Up to December 20, 2005, the employment rate for university graduates had greatly increased in Shanghai to 96.77%, a slight rise against that of 2004. Specifically, the employment rate for higher degree holders was 98.49%, bachelor degree holders 96.73%, and graduates from higher technical or # vocational institutions 96.18%.

11. Development of Top-Quality Curriculum

Development of top-quality curriculum is an important aspect of higher education reform. The number of top-quality courses not only mirrors the quality of education but also reflects the strengths and characteristics of the undergraduate education of a particular university. Further, they set up examples for other subjects and courses to emulate, thus ultimately bringing about a comprehensive improvement of teaching. Conducted at the national, provincial, and collegiate levels, and with the aid of network and multimedia technologies, the development of top-quality curriculum aims to foster high caliber talents. By the end of 2005, Shanghai-based institutions of higher education had 65 national-level and 285 municipal-level top-quality courses. By the end of 2007, Shanghai will have 100 national-level and 500 municipal-level top-quality courses.

The MEC of Shanghai will take three steps to promote the development of top-quality courses. First, it will establish the assessment standards. Websites and multimedia teaching approaches are important for the assessment of top-quality courses. Collegiate websites should be standardized while departmental websites give prominence to their own features. Second, bilingual instruction will be stressed so as to catch up with international standards. Top-quality curriculum should meet students’ needs at different levels and keep abreast of international standards. Third, a student feedback system will be developed to further enhance the top-quality courses.

12. Graduate Education

In Shanghai there are now 39 institutions (including 22 universities) that are qualified to confer masters degrees, 21 of which (including 19 universities) are qualified to confer doctoral degrees. There are another 17 institutions where the training of higher degree candidates is managed by their respective authorities. With the approval of the MOE, six institutions have graduate schools. Among the 39 institutions conferring masters degrees, there are 117 Grade-1 academic disciplines for PhD candidates, 702 Grade-2 disciplines (including Grade-1 disciplines) for PhD candidates, 226 Grade-1 disciplines for master degree candidates, 1,562 Grade-2 disciplines (including Grade-1 disciplines for PhD and master degree candidates) for master’s degree candidates. There are 78,700 higher degree candidates at present, including 19,600 PhD candidates and 59,100 master’s degree candidates.

The Joint Training Centers (JTC) for postgraduates aims to cultivate postgraduates with the joint efforts of major corporations and universities. At present, the Shanghai Degree Committee has authorized five corporations, including Bao Steel Group for cooperative postgraduate training with seven institutions like the Shanghai Agriculture and Science Institute. The MEC of Shanghai plans to spend three years developing 20 JTCs for 10,000 postgraduates.

To ensure the quality of postgraduate education, a system called Double-Blind Spot Check (neither the candidate nor the examiner knows each other) of dissertations was implemented. The training of master’s candidates in selected specializations and PhD candidates in finance, economics, and management from 12 universities, including Fudan University, was also scrutinized. In addition, 131 independent entities awarding master’s degrees in philosophy, economics, management, and engineering were carefully inspected and evaluated. At present, there are 59,100 higher degree candidates in Shanghai, including 15,000 PhD candidates. The number is expected to exceed 80,000 by the end of the Tenth Five-Year Plan.

13. Management of Teaching Staff

As an important element of higher education, management of teaching staff seeks to optimize the human resources in institutions of higher education and raise efficiency so as to reap the largest socioeconomic benefits.

Representing the CPC Shanghai Municipal Committee and Government, the Shanghai Municipal Management Board of Human Resources is in charge of staff management in public institutions of higher education. The board controls the number and structure of the teaching and administrative staff to ensure the financial investment of the government in the development and sustainability of higher education. With the establishment of the socialist market economy, institutions of higher education have registered themselves as independent corporate bodies.

Since enrolment expansion was initiated in 1998, China’s higher education has been transformed from elite education to popular education on a large scale. This is evident in the increase of students and full-time teaching and administrative staff. The total number of registered students in institutions of higher education increased from 107,900 in 1985 to 442,600 in 2005 (minus the students of online colleges and universities). Against a 4.1-fold increase of student population, the number of full-time teaching staff only increased by 1.3 times while the number of administrative staff grew by 1.1 times. This meant a double or even triple work load for the teaching staff.

As the reform of internal management systems progressed in universities, the staff structure also underwent gradual changes. The teaching and research staff accounted for over 55% against one-third before the reform. In recent years, universities have dispensed with the traditional practice of introducing talents based on staff quota. Besides, universities encouraged higher degree candidates to work as teaching assistants, research assistants, and administrative assistants. They also engaged recruitment agencies to help introduce urgently needed talents.

With the establishment of the socialist market economy, the utilization of resources is subject to the regulation of market forces. Administrative measures and government behavior can no longer solve all the emerging problems. Also, traditional standards and regulations are no longer compatible with the needs of reform and development in institutions of higher education. The MEC cooperates with the Management Board of Human Resources and Finance Bureau of Shanghai in formulating regulations and policies on the management of human resources in Shanghai-based institutions of higher education, setting the standards for determining the staff size, and defining the total investment in human resources so as to ensure the realization of the development objectives for the higher education in Shanghai.

At present, there are 70,859 teaching and administrative staff in Shanghai-based institutions of higher education. Among the 31,815 full-time teaching staff, 4,704 are professors, accounting for 14.8% of all full-timers; 9,418 (29.6%) are associate professors; 11,504 (36.1%) are lecturers; and 6,189 (19.5%) are assistant professors. Among the full-time teachers, 6,994 (21.98%) have doctoral degrees, 11,171 (35.11%) master’s degrees, 12,729 (40.01%) bachelor’s degrees, and 921 (2.89%) are diploma holders. In terms of age structure, 12,300 (38.66%) full-time teachers are below 35 years old, 9,792 (30.78%) are between 36 and 45 years old, 8,376 (26.33%) are between 46 and 60 years old, and 1,347 (4.23%) are above 61 years old.

14. Appointment of Academic Staff

From 1986 to 1988, a professional qualification appraisal system was adopted for teachers in Shanghai-based institutions of higher education. With the development of the socialist market economy, it has become imperative to appoint staff strictly based on position requirements.

The professional title reform initiated in 1999 seeks to separate the qualification appraisal of professional titles from the appointment of professional posts with a view to de-emphasizing educational background and work experience while highlighting the candidates’ achievements and performance. A new management system featuring the promotion of the best, competitive appointment, and salary pegged to post has evolved. Based on the characteristics of the current 29 types of professional titles, Shanghai practiced classified management, including appraisal, examination in place of appraisal, and appointment without appraisal. The junior, intermediate, and senior professional titles fall under appointment without appraisal. Institutions of higher education are now authorized to appraise their teaching staff for senior positions and confer letters of appointment directly to those employed. Professor is no longer a professional title, but rather a job title.

15. Selecting and Fostering Excellent Young Teachers

In the 1990s, Shanghai carried out five rounds of selection of excellent young teachers for special training. Of the 913 selected as of the end of 2000, some have become academic leaders while others are holding leadership posts in other areas. The scheme has become an important part of such larger strategies as “empowering the nation with talents,” “rejuvenating Shanghai with education.”

From 2003 to 2004, 325 candidates aged below 35 were selected as a reserve of excellent young teachers. These candidates have solid theoretical foundation, strong dedication, great development potential, and team spirit. The MEC set up a special research fund for them (RMB 20,000 to RMB 30,000 for each) and required the concerned universities to provide matching funds and arrange for supervisors to advise them in their research projects. It is expected that after years of focused training, more excellent young teachers will come to the fore in various academic fields

The Special Fund for Selecting and Fostering Excellent Young Teachers in Shanghai-based Universities was set up in 2005. With a planned annual investment of RMB 25 million, the fund aimed to help excellent young teachers and overseas returnees start up their teaching and research projects. In the same year, 1,133 young teachers from 46 institutions of higher education in Shanghai obtained, through application, financial assistance from the fund, totaling RMB 20.45 million.

16. Developing Key Disciplines

In order to further enhance the overall competence of Shanghai’s institutions of higher education, the Shanghai Municipal Government allocated special funds for the development of key disciplines in 2000. During the first phase, which was completed in July 2004, the selected 49 key disciplines attracted 11 academicians of the Chinese Academy of Science and Chinese Academy of Engineering, 21 winners of National Outstanding Youth Scientist Foundation or Yangtze River Scholars. These key disciplines enrolled 13,005 master’s degree candidates and 6,887 of them were conferred with master’s degrees; 4,134 PhD candidates were enrolled and 1,645 of them were conferred with a PhD. The PhD candidates took part in a series of research projects, published 7,519 research papers and 186 monographs, applied for 305 patents, obtained 80 patent authorizations, submitted 105 research reports to relevant authorities, compiled 33 textbooks, and won 137 scientific and technological awards.

The first phase of key discipline development also witnessed an unprecedented rise in academic exchanges and rapid expansion of academic fields. According to statistics, the 49 key disciplines undertook 5,621 research projects funded by RMB 1.553 billion. Among these were 586 national research projects; 33 projects under the 973 Program; 122 projects under the 863 Program; 341 projects under the Natural Science Foundation of China; 36 projects under the National Program of Philosophy and Social Sciences; 28 projects under the National Key Technologies and Defense Program. The 49 disciplines also carried out about 1,440 research projects at provincial or municipal levels funded by RMB 385 million. A total of 3,309 research projects were funded by enterprises and business to the tune of RMB 585 million. Two hundred and thirteen research findings were awarded the second prize or above at the municipal and ministerial levels, 14 of which won national-level prizes. Eight hundred and four patents were applied for and 216 of them were authorized; 611 patents of invention were filed and 77 were authorized; 710 monographs and 15,466 research papers were published, with 2,099 papers carried in international academic journals. In addition, 3,216 of these published research papers were included in the SCI, EI, and ISTP search systems.

In 2005, the MEC of Shanghai started the second phase of key discipline development with the emphasis placed on institutions of higher education under SMG. The aim is to optimize their distribution, enhance their overall research capabilities, and improve the research management mechanism in order for the coordinated development of these municipal institutions.

17. Science, Technology, Humanities, and Social Sciences

By the end of 2005, there were 17,600 personnel in Shanghai-based institutions of higher education engaged in research covering science, engineering, agriculture, and medicine. There were 17 national key laboratories, eight national engineering research centers, two national centers of technology transfer, and six national university science parks.

In 2005, institutions of higher education in Shanghai obtained, via various channels, RMB 4.52 billion for research in science and technology, up by 21.9% from RMB 3.707 billion in 2004. Twenty-five institutions enjoyed over RMB 10 million in financial support while eight received more than RMB 100 million. They included Shanghai Jiaotong University (RMB 1.205 billion), Tongji University (RMB 0.985 billion), Fudan University (RMB 0.51 billion), Shanghai University (RMB 0.386 billion), East China University of Science and Technology (RMB 0.29 billion), Donghua University (RMB 0.17 billion), East China Normal University (RMB 0.14 billion), and Shanghai University of Science and Technology (RMB 0.11 billion).

In terms of research into basic theories, institutions of higher education were the main force in Shanghai. In 2005, they were granted RMB 0.27 billion or 83.2% of the entire project funding to the city from the Natural Science Foundation of China. These institutions of higher education also obtained RMB 1.865 billion from providing services to corporations and enterprises in 2005, accounting for 41.26% of all their research funding, against RMB 1.644 billion in 2004, with an increase of 13.44%.

In addition, in 2005, the Shanghai-based universities published 28,658 academic papers, among which 6,361 were in international periodicals. Patent applications numbering 3,002 were filed, making Shanghai the most prolific city in China in three successive years; 1,237 of the applications for patents were granted. These institutions also obtained 326 science and technology awards at and above the provincial or ministerial level, among which 27 were at the national level and 168 were granted the Shanghai Science and Technology Achievement Awards, accounting for 52.5% of the total 320 awards granted to Shanghai.

Universities and colleges in Shanghai now employ nearly 15,000 personnel who are conducting research on various issues in the humanities and social sciences. Over 1,800 of them are professors and over 3,700 associate professors. They host 17 key research bases of the humanities and social sciences under the MOE, 21 key disciplines under the MOE, and 33 key disciplines under the SMG. In 2005, they obtained research funding of RMB 271,000,000 in the humanities and social sciences, up by 27.83% from 2004. In the same year, these universities and colleges published 884 monographs and 14,614 academic papers, among which 371 were published in foreign academic periodicals. They also won 183 Excellent Awards in Philosophy and Social Sciences in Shanghai, accounting for 82.1% of the total awards in Shanghai. In 2005, they obtained 27 awards in the Shanghai Fifth Decision-making Consultation Research Award, accounting for 45% of the total.

18. Integration of Industry, Universities, and Research

New trends emerged in the integration of industry, university, and research at the beginning of the 21st century. First, Shanghai-based universities have strengthened their collaboration with large enterprises or corporations. For instance, they have built solid cooperation with Sinopec, Bao Steel, Shanghai Automobile Industry Corporation, Shanghai Electric Group Co. Ltd., Jiangnan Shipyard Group Co. Ltd., Shanghai Construction Group, Shanghai Building Material General Company, Shanghai Textile Group Co. Ltd., Shanghai Metro Co. Ltd., Shanghai Tunnel Engineering Co. Ltd., Shenzhen Huawei Corporation, China Haier Corporation, and Jiangsu Yizheng Group. Shanghai Jiaotong University and Shanghai Automobile Industry Corporation have set up five engineering centers. A collaborative research project on the assembly line of torque-converters was listed by the State Planning Commission and Shanghai Municipal Planning Committee as a key high-tech program. The first assembly line, capable of producing 100,000 sets of converters, started to supply General Motors from July 2002, posting an annual value added of RMB 115 million. Cooperating with Shanghai Public Transportation Co. Holdings, Shanghai Urban Drainage Company, Shanghai Environmental Equipment Company, Lujiazui Finance and Trade Zone Development Co. Ltd., Shanghai Tongji University established Shanghai Environment (Group) Co. Ltd. with a joint investment of RMB 100 million. With an input of RMB 25 million in the newly established company, Tongji University became its most important shareholder.

Second, cooperation of universities with local government and surrounding enterprises is a new organic part of the integration endeavor. Building science parks around universities and tapping their technical innovations and talents has become a common practice in many countries since the 1990s. Shanghai Zizhu Science Park is just a case in point. It is the product of Shanghai Jiaotong University and private enterprises. The park focuses on emerging technologies, such as micro-electronics, photoelectron, nanotechnology, and life science with a view to building a strategic high-tech industrial base. The close collaboration between industry, universities, and research, and the market-oriented operational mechanism have attracted many foreign investments. In the first half of 2003, the park absorbed more than US$200 million. A number of technology corporations had already settled down in the park. Microsoft and Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry under the Chinese Academy of Sciences were both planning to establish their R&D facilities in the park.

Third, the centers of technology transfer became incubation bases for the collaboration between industry, university, and research. These centers of technology transfer are an important platform for the swift transformation of research achievements and patents into social productivity. For example, the center of technology transfer in East China University of Science and Technology has established six departments: domestic market, intellectual property rights, construction engineering, environmental consultation, international collaboration, and midterm test base. Additionally, over the past two years, the center has clinched nearly 600 projects on technical cooperation and transfer worth about RMB 100 million.

The Center of Technology Transfer under Shanghai Jiaotong University established an information network. Aside from a timely filtration of new achievements and patents and releasing them to the public and enterprises after repackaging, the network also conveyed feedback from the public and enterprises to the teaching staff and researchers in the university. The center also chose the science and technology bureaus of certain districts and counties to co-establish centers for science and technology interchanges, which in turn promoted technical transfer in those districts and counties.

Fourth, Chinese-Foreign cooperation opened a new world for collaboration between industry, university, and research. Fudan University has established a joint laboratory with Alcatel Shanghai Bell Co. Ltd. a Joint Commercial Laboratory with Deyi-IBM, a technology center with IBM, an applied research center with Motorola, and Shenzhou Medicine Research Center with Hong Kong. Shanghai Jiaotong University set up Shanghai Yaskawa Robots Technology Service Center with Japan, an automobile technology training center with Germany, an industrial innovation center with University of Wisconsin and University of Michigan, a joint software development center with ETA of America, and a joint research laboratory of CAD/ CAE/CAM with Switzerland. East China Normal University founded YEC Software Technology Center with Yamaha of Japan.

19. University Science Parks

The university science parks have hatched a number of high-tech enterprises and corporations to meet the needs of the universities concerned and the national plans for focused development in certain areas. The parks are a significant platform for first-class universities to provide social services and ensure the integration of industry, university, and research. They are also an important constituent in the national innovation system. Eight universities in Shanghai have built their science parks, i.e., Fudan University, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Tongji University, Donghua University, Shanghai University, East China University of Science and Technology, East China Normal University, and Shanghai University of Science and Technology. The Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) and the MOE have jointly organized an appraisal of the first batch of university science parks. Fudan University and Shanghai Jiaotong University ranked high among the 22 appraised. Tongji University, Shanghai University, and Donghua University also passed the appraisal of the second batch of 21 university science parks.

Founded in April 2000, the science park of Fudan University was officially recognized in May 2001 by the MOST and the MOE as Fudan University National Science Park. It comprises the Fudan University National Software Park, the National Innovation Center, Shanghai Yangpu Incubation Base, Shanghai Digital City, Fudan SK Innovation Center, Guquan and Fenglin Branches of Fudan University National Science Park, and several other professional incubation bases and industrial bases. The science park of Shanghai Jiaotong University was established in December 1999 and recognized by the MOST and the MOE on May 30, 2001, as one of the first batches of the National University Science Parks. Shanghai Jiaotong University National Science Park is composed of four science parks, namely Withub, Zhangjiang, Min’gu, and Xinhua. These parks are jointly established by Shanghai Jiaotong University, Xuhui District, Pudong Zhang Jiang, Minhang District, and Changning District. The Withub Science Park surrounding Jiaotong University Xuhui Campus gathers many enterprises and corporations focusing on electronic and information industries, covering a vast range of fields, such as alternative materials, new sources of energy, bio-technology, medical instruments, optical-mechanical-electric integration, molding, and advanced techniques of manufacturing.

The science park of Tongji University is located to the south of Tongji University campus, adjoining Shanghai Wujiaochang High-tech Science Park. With Tongji University as the chief shareholder, Shanghai Tongji University Science Park has attracted the active participation of local authorities and enterprises in its development.

20. Higher Special Education

Higher special education in Shanghai has been developing fast. The current situation can be summarized as follows: The Department of Arts and Design under Shanghai Institute of Applied Technology had been enrolling hearing impaired students for three years end since September 2000. These students majored in Environment Arts Design. The Institute of Foreign Languages under Shanghai Normal University recruited in September 2002 three blind students as English majors together with full-time undergraduates. The Institute of Fine Arts under Shanghai University enrolled hearing impaired students for four consecutive years in its diploma courses for adults, majoring in the Deco-Arts Design; by 2003 there were 73 graduates. The Institute for the Disabled under Shanghai Television University was established in 1995 and by 2003 some 42 students had been recruited. Diploma courses are available for only part-timers. The duration of schooling is two or three years. Specializations include Finance, Accounting, Executive Secretary, English, and Computerized Office Automation.

Xuhui District Part-time University started to enroll hearing impaired students in 1988 into diploma course in Practical Fine Arts. A hundred and ninety-three students had been enrolled in the past 15 years till 2003. One hundred and forty-five students completed their studies and graduated in 2003. There were still 45 registered students in that year. In the autumn of 2002, Shanghai Normal University recruited three graduates from the senior high school for the blind as English majors in its Institute of Foreign Languages. To better assist three blind students on campus, the university allocated RMB 100,000 as the operation fund. Their dormitory roommates volunteered to take care of their daily routines. Further, Shanghai Dazhong Taxi Company Ltd. offered to give these students free rides home at weekends. To help them academically, a series of measures were adopted. Teachers were requested to give them extra tuition. Each of the three students was also issued a recording stick which could help them record and go over the lectures, as well as a computer-aided spot-writing device which can translate English into Braille.

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