Marmara University was founded as a vocational school in 1883 under the name of Hamidiye Higher School of Business. Until the 1960s, it comprised three separate divisions (secondary, high school, and college). Its title was changed first to Istanbul Academy of Economics and Business Administration in 1959 and later, in 1982, to Marmara University, after the Sea of Marmara, on which it is located. Today, the university has thirteen faculties (education; communications; dentistry; divinity; economics and administrative sciences; engineering; fine arts; health education; law; medicine; pharmacology; science and letters; and technical education), nine vocational schools, and eleven research institutes. It has twelve separate campuses and is one of the most prestigious universities in Turkey.
English is the language of instruction in medicine and in some branches of engineering and social sciences, whereas French is used in the program of public administration. Turkish constitutes the medium of instruction in the rest of the academic units. During the 1998–1999 academic year, the university had 2,539 faculty members and 51,024 students. Its 2003 budget amounted to 93,747 billion Turkish lire, 99 percent of which came directly from state funds.
Marmara University. Available at <http://www.marmara.edu.tr/Genel/?id=3>. (The university does not have an English web site, but brief information about the school can be found at <http://www.worldmedline.8k.com/contact.html>.)
i. metin kunt
updated by burÇak keskin-kozat
"Marmara University." Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa. . Encyclopedia.com. (March 22, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/marmara-university
"Marmara University." Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa. . Retrieved March 22, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/marmara-university
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.