An IE root for to fasten appears to have had the forms *pag- or *pak-. It is the origin of LATIN, pax and hence of English pacify, pacific, and by way of FRENCH paix, of peace and appease. The sense development from *pak appears to arise from the figurative specialization ‘fastening together (by means of treaty)’. From the same IE root came Latin palus (stake fastened in the ground), whence English pole, as well as pale, impale, and palisade through French, and pawl through DUTCH. Three stakes fastened in the ground made an instrument of torture probably called *tripalium in Latin, from which comes French travailler (to work hard) and modern English travail and (from MIDDLE ENGLISH times when a trip was no pleasure) travel. One form of the root *pag- was the nasalized *pang-, which gave rise not only to the Latin source of MODERN ENGLISH impinge and impact but also to OLD ENGLISH fang (that which is fastened upon: plunder). In MIDDLE ENGLISH, the meaning of fang was specialized to the plunder of an animal, its prey; in Modern English it has become the tooth by which an animal fastens onto its prey.
Latin also had the descendant of *pag- in pagus (staked-out boundary); a dweller within such a boundary was a paganus, a villager or rustic. The figurative sense gives us pagan directly from the Latin; the literal sense remains in peasant, from the same word by way of French. From pagus Latin also had pagina (little fastening), a frame onto which vines were fastened, and from those vines comes propagate by generalization, and propaganda (those things which are to be propagated) by metaphor; hence also a page, in which the columns of written text are like vines on a trellis. These examples illustrate some of the known outcomes of the IE root *pag- or *pak- in modern English. The reconstruction of the root takes into account not only these forms and meanings but such others as Greek pḗgnumi (to fasten or congeal: compare pectin). The examples trace the outcomes from their source; the reconstruction traces the source back from its outcomes. See ETYMOLOGY.
"INDO-EUROPEAN ROOTS." Concise Oxford Companion to the English Language. . Encyclopedia.com. (May 24, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/indo-european-roots
"INDO-EUROPEAN ROOTS." Concise Oxford Companion to the English Language. . Retrieved May 24, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/indo-european-roots
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.