Writing, pronunciation, and meaningForeign words are readily taken into the written language by means of the phonetic script katakana. As its signs represent native syllables (such as sa and ke), TRANSLITERATION almost invariably produces phonetic change. Most final consonants come to be followed by a vowel, and consonant clusters are often broken up: erekutoronikkusu electronics, kurisumasu Christmas. Sounds that do not exist in Japanese are converted to the nearest Japanese syllables (rajio radio, takushi taxi, chīmu team), or are represented by special katakana combinations created to allow foreign words to be expressed in a form closer to their original pronunciation. The endings -ar and -er, and final SCHWA are usually expressed as long a, as in hanbāgā hamburger. Loanwords may undergo semantic as well as phonetic change, as with manshon high-class block of flats (from mansion), konpanion a female guide or hostess (from companion), sumāto slim (from smart).
Abbreviation and combination(1) CLIPPINGS are common: terebi television, apāto apartment building, masukomi mass communication, wāpuro word processor: see ACRONYM. (2) Foreign words often combine with Japanese words: haburashi toothbrush (from Japanese ha tooth, English brush). (3) Words from different foreign languages can also come together: rōsrupan bread roll (from English roll and Portuguese for ‘bread’). (4) Two or more words from English are sometimes combined in new ways: pureigaido (‘play guide’) ticket agency, bakkumirā (‘back mirror’) rear-view mirror. Such usages are known in Japanese as wasei eigo (‘made-in-Japan English’).
"GAIRAIGO." Concise Oxford Companion to the English Language. . Encyclopedia.com. (March 23, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/gairaigo
"GAIRAIGO." Concise Oxford Companion to the English Language. . Retrieved March 23, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/gairaigo
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