An 1857 Tunisian law that increased freedoms for nonTunisians.
The law was issued by Muhammad Bey (1855–1859) of Tunisia on 10 September 1857. Entitled Ahd alAman (Pledge of Security), the Fundamental Pact resulted from an incident involving a Tunisian Jew, Batto (Samuel) Sfez, who was executed on orders of the bey for having blasphemed Islam. The French and British consuls saw in the episode an opportunity to intervene in Tunisian affairs. The two men—Richard Wood of Britain and Leon Roches of France—pressed for the promulgation of reforms that would ensure the security of both Tunisians and foreigners; that would establish mixed courts to handle matters concerning Europeans; and, importantly, that would allow non-Tunisians to conduct business and own property in Tunisia more easily. On the one hand, the law opened the way to greater European economic activity and, on the other, spurred a group of Tunisian notables, led by Khayr al-Din Pasha, to pressure the bey to enact structural reforms that would, in part, place limits upon the powers of the bey's office. The campaign of these notables, backed by the foreign consuls who continued to press for enforcement of the new laws, led Muhammad Bey and his successor Muhammad al-Sadiq Bey (1859–1882) to draw up a formal constitution.
See also Khayr al-Din; Mixed Courts; Muhammad al-Sadiq.
Nelson, Harold D., ed. Tunisia: A Country Study. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1988.
Matthew S. Gordon
"Fundamental Pact." Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 22, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/fundamental-pact
"Fundamental Pact." Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa. . Retrieved October 22, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/fundamental-pact
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.