Skip to main content

Espírito Santo

Espírito Santo

Espírito Santo, a small mountainous state (1993 metropolitan population 3,412,746) located on the coast of Brazil, northeast of Rio de Janeiro, whose capital is Vitória. The original Indian inhabitants were the Papanazes, who were forced out by the Goaytacazes and the Tupiniquins. The first Europeans to settle in the area were a band of Portuguese who accompanied the Donatário Vasco Fernandes Coutinho in 1535. The captaincy of the state had been granted to Coutinho by the Portuguese crown to honor his services in India. He founded Vila Velha, the first capital of the captaincy of Espírito Santo, from which the state gets its name.

The early history of Espírito Santo was marked by frequent warfare against the Indians, the English, and the French. Coutinho's successor, D. Simom de Castello-Branco, was murdered by Tamayo Indians. In 1592 the state was attacked by the English pirate Thomas Cavendish, who was successfully defeated by the Portuguese and their Indian allies. Some sugar plantations flourished in the seventeenth century, when the Dutch also invaded the captaincy.

The first gold extracted from Minas Gerais was displayed in Espírito Santo in 1695. This gold arrived via the Rio Doce as a gift to the Capitão Mor from Antônio Rodriguez Arzam. Henceforth, Espírito Santo would be linked to Minas Gerais via trade, first to the goldfields of the eighteenth century and then to the iron ore deposits of the twentieth century. It is the country's second-largest exporter of ore.

The year 1830 marked the beginning of the national government's colonization efforts in the state. Immigrants who have settled in Espírito Santo include Germans, Italians, and Poles. These immigrants shaped the primarily agricultural nature of the state, whose people, nicknamed capixabas, cultivate coffee and rice. In 1991 Albuino Azeredo was the first black to become governor of the state. During the late 1990s and the early twenty-first century, Espirito Santo experienced a crime wave requiring federal intervention. Its numerous ports that export products to Europe have made it an attractive location for drug traffickers.

See alsoMinas Gerais; Mining: Colonial Brazil.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Robert Southey, History of Brazil, 3 vols. (1819; repr. 1969); Brazil A/Z: Enciclopédia alfabética em um único volume (1988).

Additional Bibliography

Aguiar, Maciel di. Brincantes & quilombolas. São Mateus, Brazil: Memorial, 2005.

Bittencourt, Gabriel Augusto de Mello. Café e modernização: O Espírito Santo no século XIX. Rio de Janeiro: Livraria Editora Cátedra, 1987.

Novaes, Maria Stella de. História do Espírito Santo. Vitória, Brazil: Fundo Editorial do Espírito Santo, 1968.

Osório, Carloa; Adriana Bravin; and Leonor de Araujo Santanna. Negros do Espírito Santo. São Paulo: Escrituras, 1999.

Rocha, Haroldo Corrêa, and Angela Maria Morandi. Cafeicultura e grande indústria: A transição no Espírito Santo, 1955–1985. Vitória, Brazil: Fundação Ceciliano Abel de Almeida, 1999.

Souza Filho, Hildo M. de. The Adoption of Sustainable Agricultural Technologies: A Case Study in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Brookfield, U.K.: Ashgate, 1997.

                                    Sheila L. Hooker

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Espírito Santo." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. . Encyclopedia.com. 19 Sep. 2019 <https://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Espírito Santo." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. . Encyclopedia.com. (September 19, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/espirito-santo

"Espírito Santo." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. . Retrieved September 19, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/espirito-santo

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.