Skip to main content

Copacabana Fort, Revolt of

Copacabana Fort, Revolt of

Revolt of Copacabana Fort (1922). Cannon fire shook Brazil's capital during the early morning of 5 July 1922, initiating a rebellion that became the epicenter of a series of military insurrections known as the tenente (lieutenant) revolts. Mutinies orchestrated by army coconspirators quickly ensued in other Carioca (Rio de Janeiro) garrisons, but legalist officers were forewarned and easily crushed these subsequent uprisings. Organized primarily by junior officers, the revolt included common soldiers, noncommissioned officers, cadets, and a handful of civilians. Incensed by the civilian government's corruption and the arrest of former president and army spokesman Marshal Hermes Da Fonseca, the junior officers acted to depose President Epitácio Pessoa.

The rebels of Copacabana Fort learned of the revolt's failure outside their battlements but refused to surrender, despite heavy bombardment. On 6 July the acting commander, Lieutenant Antônio de Siqueira Campos, allowed all soldiers not prepared to fight to the death to leave the fort. The eighteen troops and officers who remained sallied forth with shreds of the fort's Brazilian flag in their breast pockets. Eleven of them confronted loyalist forces in a suicidal gun battle on the beachfront Avenida Atlântica. This audacious act captured popular attention, providing martyrs and inspiration for succeeding tenente revolts.

See alsoTenentismo .

BIBLIOGRAPHY

For a narrative account of the revolt, consult Glauco Carneiro, História das revoluções brasileiras, 2d ed. (1989). Another analysis of this insurrection can be found in José Augusto Drummond, O movimento tenentista (1986). Sources in English deal with this initial tenente revolt only in passing. A standard reference that focuses on the subsequent uprisings is Neill Macaulay, The Prestes Column: A Revolution in Brazil (1980).

Additional Bibliography

Borges, Vavy Pachecho. "Tenentes, tenetismo: tenetismo versus oligarquia: reflexões para uma revisão historiográfica." Anais do museo Paulista 34 (1985): 105-143.

Fausto, Boris. A Concise History of Brazil. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1999.

Levine, Robert M. The History of Brazil. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003.

Sena, Davis Ribeiro de. As revoltas tenentistas que abalaram o Brasil: 1922, 1924, 1925/7. Brasília: s.n., 2004.

                                            Peter M. Beattie

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Copacabana Fort, Revolt of." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. . Encyclopedia.com. 16 Dec. 2018 <https://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Copacabana Fort, Revolt of." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 16, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/copacabana-fort-revolt

"Copacabana Fort, Revolt of." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. . Retrieved December 16, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/copacabana-fort-revolt

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.