Skip to main content



Chapare is a river and region in east central Bolivia, notorious as the center of non-traditional coca cultivation in the country. The river and its fertile valley lie to the east of Cochabamba and have long attracted immigration from the highlands. In the mid-twentieth century road construction and agricultural investments sponsored by the U.S. Agency for International Development opened the region to intensive colonization. Ironically, this infrastructure later channeled a large migrant stream, displaced by the collapse of tin mining and a series of droughts, who began large-scale coca cultivation. These growers, cocaleros, carried on a twenty-year struggle against a variety of coca eradication programs. From this resistance, the Chapare formed the base for the Movimiento al Socialismo (Movement toward Socialism; MAS) political party and for Evo Morales's rise to power.

See alsoMorales, Evo; Venezuela, Political Parties: Movement to Socialism (MAS).


Kohl, Benjamin H., and Linda C. Farthing. Impasse in Bolivia: Neoliberal Hegemony and Popular Resistance. London and New York: Zed Books, 2006.

Montes de Oca, Ismael. Geografía y recursos naturales de Bolivia, 3rd edition. La Paz: EDOBOL, 1997.

                                          David Block

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Chapare." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. . 21 Jan. 2019 <>.

"Chapare." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. . (January 21, 2019).

"Chapare." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. . Retrieved January 21, 2019 from

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

The Chicago Manual of Style

American Psychological Association

  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.