Chalchuapa, Battle of
Chalchuapa, Battle of
Battle of Chalchuapa. On 28 February 1885, the president of Guatemala, Justo Rufino Barrios, issued a declaration calling for the establishment of a Central American Union. As the self-proclaimed supreme military commander of Central America, Barrios asked each of the Central American states (Costa Rica, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, and Guatemala) to recognize the union and to send delegates to Guatemala City to create the institutions of the new government.
The governments of Costa Rica, Nicaragua, and El Salvador opposed the union immediately. As a result, on 31 March 1885, Barrios initiated a military campaign against El Salvador to crush the resistance of Salvadoran president Rafael Zaldívar. Two days later, on 2 April 1885, Barrios was killed in battle and the Guatemalan army was soundly defeated at Chalchuapa, El Salvador. Following the defeat, the Guatemalan forces dispersed and the war with El Salvador came to a rapid conclusion. In subsequent weeks, Barrios's proclamation recognizing the creation of the Central American Union was revoked and his dream of unity thwarted.
See alsoBarrios, Justo Rufino .
Thomas L. Karnes, The Failure of Union, Central America, 1824–1960 (1961), pp. 152-162.
Leiva Vivas, Rafael. La unión centroamericana: Utopía, lirismo y desafío. Tegucigalpa: ENAG, Empresa Nacional Artes Gráficas, 2004.
Yashar, Deborah J. Demanding Democracy: Reform and Reaction in Costa Rica and Guatemala, 1870s–1950s. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1997.
Wade A. Kit
"Chalchuapa, Battle of." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. . Encyclopedia.com. (April 24, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/chalchuapa-battle
"Chalchuapa, Battle of." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. . Retrieved April 24, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/chalchuapa-battle
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.