Balta Liman, Convention of (1838)

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Agreement expanding British trade rights in Ottoman Empire.

Signed between Britain and the Ottoman Empire on 15 August 1838, the agreement reaffirmed and widened Britain's rights under the capitulations (privileges granted by the Ottoman government) that gave British subjects the right to trade freely in the Ottoman Empire. In a move designed to weaken the power of Muhammad Ali Pasha of Egypt, the convention also forbade the formation of commercial monopolies in the Ottoman domains.

see also muhammad ali; ottoman empire.


Anderson, M. S. The Eastern Question, 17741923: A Study in International Relations. London, Melbourne, and New York: St. Martin's, 1966.

Shaw, Stanford, and Shaw, Ezel Kural. History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey. Cambridge, U.K., and New York: Cambridge University Press, 19761977.

Zachary Karabell