Andrada, Antônio Carlos Ribeiro de and Martim Francisco Ribeiro de

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Andrada, Antônio Carlos Ribeiro de and Martim Francisco Ribeiro de

Antônio Carlos Ribeiro de Andrada and Martim Francisco Ribeiro de Andrada, Brazilian statesmen and younger brothers of José Bonifácio de Andrada. Children of a merchant of Santos, they all graduated from Coimbra University and entered government service. All three were self-assured, quarrelsome, unscrupulous, and vindictive when crossed, confusing personal and family advancement with the public interest.

Antônio Carlos (b. 1 November 1773; d. 5 December 1845), then a royal judge, gave support to the 1817 revolt in Pernambuco, suffering three years' imprisonment. Elected from São Paulo to the Lisbon Cortes in 1821, he took the lead in asserting Brazil's rights. Martim Francisco (b. 27 June 1775; d. 23 February 1844) served as minister of finance in the cabinet headed by José Bonifácio from 1822 to 1823. The three brothers sat in the Constituent Assembly and, following the dismissal of José Bonifácio and Martim Francisco as ministers, launched a campaign of opposition to Pedro I that contributed to the violent dissolution of the Constituent Assembly in November 1823. Deported to France, the brothers did not return from exile until 1829. After the abdication of Pedro I in 1831, the brothers tried by various means, legal and illegal, to secure control of power. They were involved in the abortive coup of April 1832 and in the Caramurú movement for Pedro I's restoration. In 1834 and again in 1838 Antônio Carlos unsuccessfully sought election as regent. He and Martim Francisco played a leading part in securing the premature declaration of Pedro II's majority in July 1840. The two brothers dominated the first cabinet appointed by the emperor, but their ambition and highhandedness brought about their dismissal from office in February 1841. Antônio Carlos, the most energetic and domineering of the three brothers, became a leader of the new Liberal Party, securing election to the Senate prior to his death.

See alsoBrazil: The Colonial Era, 1500–1808; Brazil: 1808–1889.


Barman, Roderick. Citizen Emperor: Pedro II and the Making of Brazil, 1825–1891. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1999.

Beattie, Peter M. The Human Tradition in Modern Brazil. Wilmington, DE: SR Books, 2004.

Schultz, Kirsten. Tropical Versailles: Empire, Monarchy, and the Portuguese Royal Court in Rio de Janeiro, 1808–1821. New York: Routledge, 2001.

                                        Roderick J. Barman

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Andrada, Antônio Carlos Ribeiro de and Martim Francisco Ribeiro de

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