Chapter Ten: Science, Technology, and Health

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800-323 B.C.E.: Chapter Ten: Science, Technology, and Health

By KEITH M. DICKSON

CONTENTS

CHRONOLOGY 314

OVERVIEW 318

TOPICS IN SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, AND HEALTH

Ancient Myths and Legends 319

Hephaestus, Wizard of Technology 319

Prometheus the Culture-Giver 320

Ancient Technology 321

How to Make a Raft 321

On the Origin of Human Technology and Culture 322

The Early Philosophers 323

The First Manned Flight 324

Early Speculation 325

The Oath of the Pythagoreans 325

Heraditus Speaks 326

Early Speculation: The Cult of Pythagoras 327

Early Speculation: Cycles of Change 328

Tortoise and Hare 328

Empedocles Speaks 329

Respiration 329

Astronomy or Atheism? 330

Early Speculation: Pluralism 330

The Laughing Philosopher 331

Leucippus and Atomism 332

Testimonials from the Temple of Asclepius at Epidaurus 332

Medicine: Social Contents 333

The Hippocratic Oath 334

Medicine: The Theory of Healing 334

Hysteria 335

Epilepsy: Divine or Natural? 336

Medicine: Therapy 338

Plato on the Elements 338

The Science of Plato 340

Plato’s Universe 341

The Science of Plato: Astronomy 341

Why Snakes Have No Feet 343

The Scientific Research of Aristotle 344

Aristotle on Embryology 346

Teleology of Aristotle 346

The Unmoved Mover and Aristotle: Cosmology 348

SIGNIFICANT PEOPLE 350

Anaxagoras 351

Anaximander 351

Anaximenes 352

Aristotle 352

Empedocles 352

Heraclitus 353

Plato 353

Pythagoras 354

Thales 354

DOCUMENTARY SOURCES

Sidebars and tables are listed in italics.