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justiciar. The frequent absences of Norman kings on the continent necessitated a competent viceroy or regent in England. This function became associated with the justiciar, who acted as chief minister, performing a great variety of duties, including campaigning, as well as presiding over the curia regis. Ranulf Flambard and Roger of Salisbury acted in this capacity under William Rufus and Henry I, without having the title: later the office was held by men of the calibre of Richard de Lucy, Ranulf Glanvill, Hubert Walter, Peter des Roches, and Hubert de Burgh. After de Burgh's overthrow by Henry III in 1232, the office lapsed, though the baronial opposition in the 1250s attempted to revive it. The legal duties were taken over by the chancellor or the lord chief justice. In Ireland the justiciar was the king's chief representative in the 13th cent. until superseded by the king's lieutenant, the lord deputy, and the lord-lieutenant. In Scotland the justiciar was the supreme law officer until replaced in the 15th cent. by the lord justice general.

J. A. Cannon