Ulster covenant

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Ulster covenant, 1912. The Parliament Act of 1911 reduced the Lords' veto to a delay and in April 1912 the third Home Rule Bill was introduced. The protestant response was to bring forward a covenant on ‘Ulster Day’, 28 September 1912, pledging the signatories to use ‘all means which may be found necessary to defeat the present conspiracy to set up a Home Rule Parliament in Ireland’. It was signed by 237,000 Ulstermen and accompanied by a campaign to drive catholics out of employment in the dockyards. Both sides began preparing for armed conflict and the Ulster Volunteer Force was founded in January 1913.

J. A. Cannon

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