MUSGRAVE, THOMAS. (1738–1812). British officer. Born on 26 November 1738 at Hayton Castle, Cumberland, Musgrave entered the army in 1754 as an ensign in the Third ("Buffs") Regiment. After serving in the Sixty-fourth Regiment and being brevetted as a major in 1772, he joined the Fortieth Foot Regiment and came to America with this unit in 1776, gaining promotion to lieutenant colonel after the battle of Long Island on 28 August 1776. Commanding the Fortieth in the Philadelphia campaign, he distinguished himself in the defense of the Chew House at Germantown on 4 October 1777. The next year he accompanied General James Grant's expedition to St. Lucia as quartermaster general. Invalided home, he was made a colonel and aide-de-camp to the King in 1782. In this same year he returned to America as a brigadier general to serve as the last British commandant of New York City. He then went to India, was promoted to major general in 1790, to lieutenant general in 1797, and to full general in 1802. He died at his London home on 31 December 1812.
SEE ALSO Germantown, Pennsylvania, Battle of.
revised by Michael Bellesiles